immunosuppressive drug

(redirected from Immunosuppressant drug)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

immunosuppressive drug,

any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
..... Click the link for more information.
. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor. A transplant is rejected when the recipient's immune system acts against it; current methods aim at suppressing the activity of the lymphocytes, the cells that form antibodies (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
..... Click the link for more information.
; transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
..... Click the link for more information.
). The steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
..... Click the link for more information.
, such as cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
..... Click the link for more information.
, which suppress the antibody-forming lymphocyte cells, have been used to prolong human organ transplants. Steroids may also prevent antigens from entering cells and thereby prevent local allergic inflammation reactions. In another immunosuppressive method, human lymphocytes are injected into horses, stimulating the animals to produce antilymphocyte serum. The serum, administered to humans with transplanted organs, in some way inactivates lymphocyte cells. The procedure will not work effectively for more than a few injections of serum. Another group of immunosuppressive drugs act by interfering with the synthesis of nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and are especially effective against proliferating cells such as stimulated lymphocytes. Some of these are analogs of purines and pyrimidines, substances that are nucleic acid subunits; the purine analog azothioprine has been used to suppress rejection of transplanted human kidneys. Most substances that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis, such as nitrogen mustardnitrogen mustard,
any of various poisonous compounds originally developed for military use (see poison gas). Like mustard gas and lewisite, it is a vesicant (blistering agent).
..... Click the link for more information.
, cyclophosphamide (CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
..... Click the link for more information.
), chloramphenicolchloramphenicol
, antibiotic effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stain). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria.
..... Click the link for more information.
, actinomycinactinomycin
, any one of a group of antibiotics produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin was the first antibiotic reported to be able to halt cancer; however, it is not widely used to treat cancers because it is highly toxic to humans, interfering with
..... Click the link for more information.
, and colchicinecolchicine
, alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum and especially from the corms of the autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale (see meadow saffron).
..... Click the link for more information.
, are not widely used clinically because they are too toxic. Many of the drugs that suppress the function of the immunological system are also used clinically to check growth of cancerous tissue, which is composed of rapidly dividing cells. The drugs currently used to suppress antibody formation also leave an individual susceptible to infection.
References in periodicals archive ?
They are involved in supporting the patient's adherence to the regimen of immunosuppressant drugs that is essential following the transplant.
To determine if the drugs will work, the researchers observed how HIV infection would be affected by immunosuppressant drugs in 91 patients who were followed for a median of 3.
Immunosuppressant drug monitoring could be done by several methods, but the most common method is an immunoassay.
The ability to make the molecule using the techniques of organic chemistry -- organisms -- may usher in a new class of immunosuppressant drugs, writes a group of chemists in the May 19 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY.
Researchers have developed a way to stimulate a rat's stem cells after a liver transplant as a means of preventing rejection of the new organ without the need for lifelong immunosuppressant drugs.
Almost 80% were on an immunosuppressant drug, such as a corticosteroid or methotrexate, and only two patients reported recent exposure to TB.
To prevent rejection of the myoblasts, which are obtained from healthy male donors, the team gave the boys the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine.
Sirolimus is an immunosuppressant drug also known as rapamycin.
Panel members also pointed out there were uncertainties over whether treatment with a topical immunosuppressant drug increases the risk of lymphoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers--known risks of systemic immunosuppression.
The immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus (FK506), which exhibits 50-100 times the potency of cyclosporin A, is proving to be highly effective in preventing rejection in solid-organ transplantation [1].
Michael Marvin, chief of transplantation, Jewish Hospital/University of Louisville, who is responsible for the patient's immunosuppressant drug regimen.
See your GP at the first sign of infection if you have HIV and AIDS, leukaemia, aplastic anaemia (when your bone marrow doesn't produce enough blood cells), you're having chemotherapy treatment, taking an immunosuppressant drug or an antithyroid medication.