immunosuppressive drug

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Related to Immunosuppressive drugs: Immunosuppressive therapy

immunosuppressive drug,

any of a variety of substances used to prevent production of antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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. They are commonly used to prevent rejection by a recipient's body of an organ transplanted from a donor. A transplant is rejected when the recipient's immune system acts against it; current methods aim at suppressing the activity of the lymphocytes, the cells that form antibodies (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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; transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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). The steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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, such as cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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, which suppress the antibody-forming lymphocyte cells, have been used to prolong human organ transplants. Steroids may also prevent antigens from entering cells and thereby prevent local allergic inflammation reactions. In another immunosuppressive method, human lymphocytes are injected into horses, stimulating the animals to produce antilymphocyte serum. The serum, administered to humans with transplanted organs, in some way inactivates lymphocyte cells. The procedure will not work effectively for more than a few injections of serum. Another group of immunosuppressive drugs act by interfering with the synthesis of nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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 and are especially effective against proliferating cells such as stimulated lymphocytes. Some of these are analogs of purines and pyrimidines, substances that are nucleic acid subunits; the purine analog azothioprine has been used to suppress rejection of transplanted human kidneys. Most substances that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis, such as nitrogen mustardnitrogen mustard,
any of various poisonous compounds originally developed for military use (see poison gas). Like mustard gas and lewisite, it is a vesicant (blistering agent).
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, cyclophosphamide (CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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), chloramphenicolchloramphenicol
, antibiotic effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stain). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria.
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, actinomycinactinomycin
, any one of a group of antibiotics produced by bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin was the first antibiotic reported to be able to halt cancer; however, it is not widely used to treat cancers because it is highly toxic to humans, interfering with
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, and colchicinecolchicine
, alkaloid extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum and especially from the corms of the autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale (see meadow saffron).
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, are not widely used clinically because they are too toxic. Many of the drugs that suppress the function of the immunological system are also used clinically to check growth of cancerous tissue, which is composed of rapidly dividing cells. The drugs currently used to suppress antibody formation also leave an individual susceptible to infection.
References in periodicals archive ?
Experts from the Transplant Roundtable believe that immunosuppressive drugs unequivocally meet both of the standards set forth for protected class status in the Proposed Rule.
Only instances when one or more immunosuppressive drugs was suspended for one week or more were counted as episodes of nonadherence or interruption of treatment.
On behalf of the American Society of Transplantation (AST), representing the majority of professionals engaged in the field of organ transplantation, I strongly applaud Congressmen Burgess (R-TX) and Kind (D-WI) for their leadership in introducing the Comprehensive Immunosuppressive Drug Coverage for Kidney Transplant Patients Act of 2011," said Dr.
Carefully supervised studies will be necessary to answer this question as well as to determine whether attempting to completely withdraw all immunosuppressive drugs will prove advantageous in the long term," he added.
Her parents ruled out immunosuppressive drug therapy as being too harsh.
But unless the recipient has an identical twin, there will always be some minor differences between the organs, so even close matches require a lifetime of immunosuppressive drugs.
The seemingly annual ritual of introducing bipartisan legislation which, if finally passed, would end the 36month cutoff of coverage for immunosuppressive drugs for kidney transplant recipients has occured.
One of our strategic priorities is to build a robust pipeline of complimentary immunosuppressive drugs with blockbuster potential.
Moreover, when investigators also used large doses of immunosuppressive drugs, some DAF-laden pig hearts survived more than 2 months.
Following the transplant, patients take immunosuppressive drugs to keep their bodies from rejecting the new islets and to block recurrence of diabetes.
On August 1 Senators Dick Durbin (D-IL), Thad Chochrane (R-MS), and Scott Brown, (R-MA) introduced bipartisan legislation--The Comprehensive Immunosuppressive Drug Coverage for Kidney Transplant Act--which would assist the more than 144,000 kidney transplant recipients under the age of 65 who are being cut from Medicare after 36 months by providing unlimited coverage of immunosuppressive drugs until they reach the age of 65.
Pilot studies of humans, while not establishing that oral tolerance therapy will be effective, have enabled some patients to stop taking conventional immunosuppressive drugs entirely.