The tool produces temperature and run off scenarios based on parameters entered by the user within a defined urban area, such percentages of land covered with buildings, roads, and impervious surfaces
Since cities have a high percentage of impervious surfaces
like roads and parking lots, the mercury enters waterways rapidly.
Urbanization affects stream habitats and fishes in a number of other ways including increases in runoff volumes and rates, flooding events, and a reduction in base flow, often due to an increase in impervious surfaces
such as parking lots (Wang et al., 2001).
Additionally, fertilizer should not be intentionally applied when the lawn is frozen or saturated or applied to impervious surfaces
, such as pavement, gravel, or any other surface or structure that prevents absorption of stormwater into land.
Urban sprawl and impervious surfaces
are the biggest culprits.
The views of many are encompassed in a summary of the issue on the CBF website: "Charles County has failed to adequately estimate the additional impacts to the Mattawoman from stormwater runoff, new impervious surfaces
, wastewater discharges, air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions due to this development.
Urban cover is quantified using the delineation of urban areas made by the US Geological Survey in 2001 and impervious surface
data from the 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD), with developed land defined as land where impervious surfaces
account for 20 percent or more of the land cover based on multispectral remote sensing imagery.
The runoff is often linked to increasing amounts of traditional concrete and asphalt, or impervious surfaces
, Romeo said.
* Improved river and wetland foreshore management through the identification of trends in urban vegetation (to link with public intervention programs and broader environmental pressures such as climate change); high-water-use and irrigation efficiencies that can be targeted with water demand management programs; and better estimation of urban storm flows from newly urbanised areas (as a result of changes to impervious surfaces
Smart growth development practices include preserving open spaces and parkland, improving transportation choices and reducing impervious surfaces
to improve water quality.
Commercial development inherently causes changes to the environment by creating impervious surfaces
such as parking lots and roofs.