Imprisonment


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Imprisonment

 

the most stringent form of punishment entailing deprivation of freedom.

In the USSR, imprisonment is very infrequent; as a rule, the penalty of deprivation of freedom takes the form of a term of confinement in a correctional labor colony. Under Soviet criminal law, imprisonment may be imposed for all or part of the term of deprivation of freedom in the case of persons who have committed serious crimes or who are dangerous recidivists. The law provides that individuals (except minors) guilty of malicious transgressions in a correctional labor colony may be transferred to a prison for a period of up to three years. Prisoners who show model behavior and conscientious work attitudes may have their prison sentence reduced by half; the remainder of the sentence is then served in a correctional labor colony. Soviet law does not provide for life imprisonment.

The bourgeois states currently use imprisonment as the prevailing penalty entailing deprivation of freedom. Imprisonment may be for an indefinite period (as in France, for example) or for life (as in the United States).

Imprisonment

See also Isolation.
Alcatraz Island
former federal maximum security penitentiary, near San Francisco; “escapeproof.” [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 218]
Altmark, the
German prison ship in World War II. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 27]
Andersonville
in southwest Georgia; imprisoned Union soldiers died under wretched conditions. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 99]
Attica
well-known prison in Attica, New York; remembered for its riot (1971). [Am. Hist.: NCE, 182]
Bajazeth
Turkish emperor confined to a cage by Tamburlaine. [Br. Drama: Tamburlaine the Great in Magill I, 950]
ball and chain
originally penological, now generalized symbol. [Western Folklore: Jobes, 176]
Bastille
Paris prison stormed on July 14, 1789. [Fr. Hist.: Worth, 21]
Birdman of Alcatraz
Robert F. Stroud (1890–1963), convicted murderer, became ornithologist in prison. [Am. Culture: Misc.]
Black Hole of Calcutta
Indian dungeon in which overcrowding suffocated prisoners. [Br. Hist.: Harbottle, 45–46]
Bok, Yakov
held in prison for two years under dreadful conditions. [Am. Lit.: Bernard Malamud The Fixer]
Cereno, Benito
captain held captive by mutinous slaves. [Am. Lit.: Benito Cereno]
Count of Monte Cristo
Edmond Dantes; wrongly imprisoned in the dungeons of Chateau D’If. . [Fr. Lit.: The Count of Monte Cristo, Magill I, 158–160]
Denisovitch, Ivan
struggles to stay alive in a Soviet prison camp. [Russ. Lit.: Solzhenitzyn One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch]
Devil’s Island
Guiana island penal colony (1852–1938); Alfred Dreyfus among famous prisoners there. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 754]
Droma
chain forged to fetter wolf, Fenris. [Norse Myth.: LLEI, I: 326]
Enormous Room, The
portrays three months behind bars in France. [Am. Lit.: The Enormous Room]
Falconer
prison where former professor Farragut, who had killed his brother, witnesses the torments and chaos of the penal system. [Am. Lit.: Cheever Falconer in Weiss, 151]
Fortunato
walled up to die in catacomb niche. [Am. Lit.: “The Cask of Amontillado” in Portable Poe, 309–316]
Fotheringay
Mary Stuart’s final prison and place of execution (1587). [Br. Hist.: Grun, 260]
Hogan’s Heroes
incarcerated in Stalag 13, unlikeliest of POW camps. [TV: Terrace, I, 357–358]
House of the Dead, The
account of four years in the fortress-prison of Omsk. [Russ. Lit.: Dostoevsky The House of the Dead in Benét, 480]
Ibbetson, Peter
imprisoned for life, spends all his nights in blissful dreams of existence with his beloved. [Br. Lit. & Am. Opera: G. du Maurier Peter Ibbetson in Magill I, 736]
Leavenworth
the oldest military prison (est. 1874); also the name of a state penitentiary. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 984]
Little Dorrit
born and grew up in the prison where for twenty years her father is incarcerated for debt. [Br. Lit.: Dickens Little Dorrit]
Man in the Iron Mask
mystery prisoner; legendary contender for Louis XIV’s throne. [Fr. Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 460, 555]
Manette, Dr.
lost memory during 18-year term in France. [Br. Lit.: A Tale of Two Cities]
Marshalsea
ancient London prison, long used for incarcerating debtors. [Br. Hist.: Benét, 640]
Newgate
famed jail of London in centuries past. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 754]
Pickwick, Mr
. (Samuel) imprisoned for refusing to pay dam-ages in a breach-of-promise suit. [Br. Lit.: Dickens Pickwick Papers]
Prisoner of Chillon, The
poem by Lord Byron; based on imprisonment of François de Bonnivard. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 817]
Rubashov, Nicholas
political prisoner held in isolation and brutally questioned. [Br. Lit.: Arthur Koestler Darkness at Noon in Magill I, 187]
San Quentin
famous western California prison (established in 1852); the subject of many songs. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 2419]
Sing Sing
notoriously harsh state prison at Ossining, New York. [Am. Hist.: Flexner, 219]
Torquilstone Front
de Boeuf’s castle, where he imprisoned Rowena, Rebecca, and Isaac. [Br. Lit.: Walter Scott Ivanhoe]
Tower of London
famed as jail. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1094]
Ugolino
treacherous 13th-century count of Pisa, imprisoned and starved to death with his sons and grandsons. [Ital. Poetry: Inferno]
Valjean, Jean
spent nineteen years in prison for stealing loaf of bread. [Fr. Lit.: Les Misérables]
References in classic literature ?
It was by your wit in apprising me of your existence and imprisonment through the youth, Parthak.
You have broken your chair, and made a great disturbance; that is an offense punishable by imprisonment in one of the lower dungeons.
His Highness, who, as it seems, did not possess the means to feed Van Baerle at the Hague, sent him to undergo his perpetual imprisonment at the fortress of Loewestein, very near Dort, but, alas
And, outside of imprisonment, nothing happened of interest to Dag Daughtry and Kwaque at the pest-house until one night in the late fall.
Rising in wrath he was about to sentence the Thief to life imprisonment when the latter said:
Yes, I know," assented the Malefactor - "three years' imprisonment and the preaching.
Unable to give any account of himself he was arrested as a vagrant and sentenced to imprisonment in the Infants' Sheltering Home--where he was washed.
The penalty was State imprisonment, the stripes and the lockstep.
There came a day when messengers came to More's happy home, and the beloved father was led away to imprisonment and death.
And now," announced the girlish Ruler of Oz, "we will hold a solemn conference to decide the best manner of liberating the royal family of this fair Land of Ev from their long imprisonment.
As the glass doors closed on it she had the sense of an imprisonment.
I recollect seeing, years ago, at the prisons for idiots and madmen at Bicetre, near Paris, a poor wretch bent down under the bondage of his imprisonment and his personal infirmity, to whom one of our party gave a halfpenny worth of snuff in a cornet or "screw" of paper.