Inönü, Ismet

Inönü, Ismet

(ĭsmĕt` ēnönü`), 1884–1973, Turkish statesman and soldier, president of Turkey (1938–50). He served in the Balkan Wars and World War I and became (1920) chief of staff to Mustafa Kemal, later known as Kemal AtatürkAtatürk, Kemal
, 1881–1938, Turkish leader, founder of modern Turkey. He took the name in 1934 in place of his earlier name, Mustafa Kemal, when he ordered all Turks to adopt a surname; it is made up of the Turkish words Ata and Türk [father of the Turks].
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. He played an important part in the establishment of the Turkish republic and in Kemal's victory over the Greeks, and he represented Turkey at the Conference of Lausanne (see Lausanne, Treaty ofLausanne, Treaty of,
1922–23. The peace treaty (see Sèvres, Treaty of) imposed by the Allies on the Ottoman Empire after World War I had virtually destroyed Turkey as a national state.
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, 1922–23). As prime minister (1923–24, 1925–37) he ably seconded the reforms of Atatürk, whom he succeeded (1938) as president of the republic. Inönü instituted free general elections for the first time in 1950; his party was defeated, and he was succeeded by Celal Bayar. After a military coup (1960; see TurkeyTurkey,
Turk. Türkiye , officially Republic of Turkey, republic (2005 est. pop. 69,661,000), 301,380 sq mi (780,574 sq km), SW Asia and SE Europe. It borders on Iraq (SE), Syria and the Mediterranean Sea (S), the Aegean Sea (W), Greece and Bulgaria (NW), on the Black
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) and the promulgation of a new constitution, Inönü's Republican People's party won a parliamentary plurality in the elections of 1961. He again became premier, heading successive coalition cabinets until 1965, when his government fell.

İnönü, İsmet

 

Born Sept. 24, 1884, in Izmir; died Dec. 25, 1973, in Ankara. Turkish politician and statesman. Son of a judge; military man by education and profession.

In 1920, İnönü joined the Kemal revolution and soon became one of the closest comrades-in-arms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. He was chief of the general staff and commander of the Western Front. In January and March of 1921, Turkish troops under the command of İnönü (then İsmet Pașsa) won victories over Greek interventionists near the village of İnönü. In 1934, when surnames were introduced in Turkey, he received the name İnönü in honor of the victories.

After the Mudanya Armistice in 1922, he was appointed minister of foreign affairs and head of the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference (1922–23). He was premier from Oct. 30, 1923, to Nov. 1,1937 (with a hiatus from Nov. 20, 1924, to Mar. 3, 1925). In 1932 he visited the USSR.

After the death of Atatiirk (Nov. 10, 1938), İnönü was chosen chairman of the ruling Republican People’s Party (RPP) and president of the republic. He remained in the post until May 1950, after which, as a result of the party’s defeat in parliamentary elections, he headed the opposition in the majlis. From October 1961 to February 1965 he was premier and then again leader of the opposition. On May 8, 1972, he left the post of chairman of the RPP.

WORKS

Siyasî ve içtimaî nutuklar. Ankara, 1933.
İnönü nun söylev ve demeçleri, vol. I. Istanbul, 1946.