inclusion-exclusion principle

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inclusion-exclusion principle

[¦in‚klü·zhən ′eks‚klü·zhən ‚prin·sə·pəl]
(mathematics)
The principle that, if A and B are finite sets, the number of elements in the union of A and B can be obtained by adding the number of elements in A to the number of elements in B, and then subtracting from this sum the number of elements in the intersection of A and B.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is for this reason that the paper will make various comparisons with the UK, given the influence that the UK Government has had on the conception of social inclusion-exclusion developed in Australia, particularly the emphasis on market integration as the main marker of 'inclusion'.
Fundamental issues such as making faulty business or medical assumptions or overly strict inclusion-exclusion criteria can derail a clinical trial from the start.
Case law pertaining to this important social security benefit suggests three broad areas of concern: inclusion-exclusion dynamics related to access to gratuity rights, the linkage of the denial or grant of payment of gratuity to reward for compliance and punishment for dissent, assertions of managerial prerogatives over the rights of workers in the pursuit of unilateralist dominance over employment relations.
He explains the mathematical tools of basic counting rules, recursions, inclusion-exclusion, techniques, generating functions, bijective proofs, and linear algebraic methods then demonstrates how to used them to analyze many combinatorial structures.
Trial aspects that could be modified include (but not restricted to) inclusion-exclusion criteria, treatment duration, dose, study end-point, evaluation criteria, randomization, study design, sample size, study hypothesis and statistical analysis plan.
They explain such topics as combinatorics is, permutations and combinations, the inclusion-exclusion principle, generating functions and recurrence relations, trees, group actions, and Dirichlet's pigeonhole principle.
In the case studies, Iveson analyzes examples of insurgent uses of public spaces in Australia, from social protests, gay cruising, graffiti-writing, political activism and civil resistance and as such interrogates the boundaries between public-private, inclusion-exclusion and public-counter publics.
The results obtained can then be combined via the inclusion-exclusion formula.
These chapters look at workforce diversity from different social psychological perspectives, including prejudice and discrimination, and review concepts and research on social inclusion-exclusion, culture and communication, and interpersonal relationships.
The application of the inclusion-exclusion principle to word counting due to Goulden and Jackson (1979, 1983) is used to derive the result.
Two articles on workforce diversity address issues of theoretical perspectives on diversity, inclusion-exclusion, and personal and organizational outcomes.
Here the focus is on the inclusion-exclusion continuum.