Incubation Period

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incubation period

[‚iŋ·kyə′bā·shən ‚pir·ē·əd]
The period of time required for the development of symptoms of a disease after infection, or of altered reactivity after exposure to an allergen.
(vertebrate zoology)
The brooding period required to bring an egg to hatching.

Incubation Period


(or incubation), the time interval from the moment of infection to the appearance of the clinical symptoms of a disease.

For each infectious disease, the incubation period has a characteristic length, although the length may vary depending on the number of microbes that entered the body, their pathogenicity, the physical condition of the body itself (previous traumas and illnesses, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency), and the site of entry of the infection. Vaccination, seroprophylaxis, and chemotherapy prolong the incubation period.

Table 1. Length of incubation periods of some infectious diseases
 Length of incubation period (in days)
Most frequent “average”MinimumMaximum
Rabies . . . . . . .40123-6 months (rarely up to 1 year)
Botulism . . . . . .12-24 hours1-2 hours1 (rarely more)
Brucellosis . . . . .14720-30
Typhoid fever . . .143–421
Chicken pox . . . .11–141021
Influenza . . . . . .2a few hours3
Dysentery . . . . .32 hours7
Diphtheria . . . . .527–10
Whooping cough .7–9214–15
Measles . . . . . .8–10717 and 21 (with injection of serum)
Malaria . . . . . . .10–15631 (in tertian malaria, sometimes 7–11 months)
Epidemic parotitis (mumps) . . . . . .11921
Poliomyelitis . . . . .7–14335
Scarlet fever . . .3–6a few hours7–12
Tetanus . . . . . . .7–14140 (sometimes upon removal of splinters, a few years)
Typhus . . . . . . .12–14620
Tularemia . . . . . . .8121
Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis2–3a few hours7
Foot-and-mouth disease . . . . .426

In some infectious diseases (such as measles and diphtheria) causative agents are discharged into the environment during the incubation period; this leads to the infection of other persons. The length of the incubation period is important in discovering the source of infection and sometimes also for establishing a diagnosis.


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After decoding these strings to real values through linear mapping, the optimum values of process parameters were seen to be equal to 38.82[degrees]C, 10.285%, 9.392%, 7.32, and 2.995 h for fermentation variables such as temperature, oil concentration, inoculums size, pH, and incubation time, respectively.
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The longer incubation time resulted in the greater capture efficiency.
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6 showed that there was the linear correlation between the amount of ayp-totanshinone absorbed and the incubation time ([R.sup.2]=0.9844) in the absence of verapamil.
Figure 3, visually illustrates the interaction between additives, incubation time and free fatty acid content of the oil.
Then, they suggested that it is worth investigating the effect of [Na.sub.2]O addition in the CaO-Si[O.sub.2]-Ti[O.sub.2] slags, since in this way it would be possible to decrease the incubation times and consequently to increase the thickness of the crystalline layer.
The nitrate concentration in water samples from the water column was lower than the aforementioned toxicity values, starting at the first incubation time (t = 0) until the end of the experiments (t = 135 days).
Figure 3a shows the GPC curves of the PLLA sponge with incubation time. In the first 6 weeks, a remarkable decrease in molecular weight and a characteristic peak deformation were observed simultaneously.
Figure 3 shows the effect of Sn(IV) chlorin e6 on the viability of HepG2 cancer cells at different concentrations of the photosensitizer, fixed light dose of 70 J/cm2, and 6 hours of incubation time. There was a gradual decreasing of the viability with proportional to the Sn(IV) chlorin e6 concentrations.
stamineus, this study was conducted to determine the effects of several factors; types of plant tissue, fresh weight of tissue, sorbitol and enzyme concentrations as well as the incubation time on the yield and viability of the protoplast isolated.