Laura Biskaduros and Esteban Mendoza did not take out papers);
14th Circuit State Attorney, where incumbent
Glenn Hess faces Jim Appleman.
In the Hart Union High School District in Santa Clarita, incumbents
Gloria Mercado-Fortine and Steven Sturgeon were holding off their sole challenger, Joe Messina.
Historically, when incumbents
lose big, they do so for sound reasons: The public sees their policies as not working--or worse yet, as failures.
No one is challenging the three incumbents
in the Bethel district, the county's third-largest school system.
Political veterans acknowledge the objection process has long been the easiest way for incumbents
to win re-election.
The results are also useful to policymakers since they describe the market and firm characteristics that are most likely to lead to large price cuts by incumbents
, be they termed predatory or just competitive.
Jacobson's theory, originally developed to explain differences in the effectiveness of spending by incumbents
and challengers in U.
Given this voter consistency and the fact that most districts are not level playing fields, most elections are decided during the decennial redistricting (or "incumbent
protection") process--that is, when Democrats and Republicans blatantly carve up the political map to protect incumbents
, creating noncompetitive districts "safe" from changing parties.
Empirical studies of the effects of campaign spending on the outcome of Congressional elections have found that campaign spending by incumbents
is not as effective as that of their challengers.
STERLING -- Only incumbents
have taken out papers for the May 11 annual town election, as of Wednesday.