program

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Related to Independent Living Program: Independent Living Skills, Independent Living Center

program

(sometimes), programme
a sequence of coded instructions fed into a computer, enabling it to perform specified logical and arithmetical operations on data

Program

A written document that defines the intended functions and uses of a building, or site, and is used to initiate and control an architectural design or preservation project.

Program

 

(1) A plan of activity or work.

(2) A statement of the basic concepts and goals of a political party (for example the Program of the CPSU), organization, or individual.

(3) A concise statement, or syllabus, describing the content of an academic course.

(4) An ordered sequence of actions for a computer that realizes an algorithm for the solution of a certain problem (see).

program

[′prō·grəm or ′prō‚gram]
(aerospace engineering)
In missile guidance, the planned flight path events to be followed by a missile in flight, including all the critical functions, preset in a program device, which control the behavior of the missile.
(communications)
A sequence of audio signals alone, or audio and video signals, transmitted for entertainment or information.
(computer science)
A detailed and explicit set of directions for accomplishing some purpose, the set being expressed in some language suitable for input to a computer, or in machine language.
(industrial engineering)
An undertaking of significant scope that is enduring rather than occurring within a limited time span.

program

A statement prepared by or for an owner, with or without an architect’s assistance, setting forth the conditions and objectives for a building project including its general purpose and detailed requirements, such as a complete listing of the rooms required, their sizes, special facilities, etc.

program

program

(1) (verb) To write the lines of code in a program.

(2) (noun) A collection of instructions that tell the computer what to do. All programs are "software," while the programs users work with (word processor, spreadsheet, Web browser, etc.) are called "applications," "application programs" or simply "apps." The programs that control the computer (operating system, driver, etc.) are "system software." See application software and system software.

All programs are written in a programming language, such as C, C++ or Java, and the statements and commands written by the programmer are converted into the computer's machine language by software called "assemblers," "compilers" and "interpreters." See assembly language, compiler and interpreter.

Instructions, Buffers, Constants and Counters
A program contains machine instructions, buffers, constants and counters. The instructions are the directions that the computer follows, and they embody the program's logic. Buffers are reserved input/output areas that accept and hold the data while being processed.

Constants are fixed values used for comparison, such as minimums, maximums and dates. Menu titles and error messages are another type of constant. Counters, also called "variables," are reserved space for summing money amounts, quantities, virtually any calculations, including those necessary to keep track of internal operations, such as how many times a function is repeated.

Input-Process-Output
The program calls for data in an input-process-output sequence. After the data have been input into one of the program's buffers from a peripheral device (keyboard, disk, etc.), they are processed. The results are output to a peripheral device (screen, printer, etc.). Permanent changes are written back to the disk.

The Application Talks to the OS
The application program, which does the actual data processing, does not instruct the computer to do everything. When it is ready for input or needs to output data, it sends a request to the operating system (OS), which performs those services and then turns control back to the application program.

The Illustration Below
Following is a highly conceptual illustration of a program residing in memory being executed. In the physical reality of memory (RAM chips), everything is binary 0s and 1s.

Although represented as uniform, black blocks in the diagram, machine instructions can be variable in length. They reside in the program in some logical order with some instructions pointing back to the beginning of routines or to other parts of the program. When they erroneously point to the wrong places, the program crashes (see abend).

For an understanding of what the computer does to process data, read about The 3 C's: calculate, compare and copy (see computer).


Anatomy of a Program
A program is made up of "data" and "processing." Buffers hold incoming and outgoing data, counters accumulate totals, and constants are values used for comparison. The instructions are executed to process the data.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although some state and local independent living programs for older individuals who are visually impaired have developed tools for assessing outcomes for clients and programs, and various researchers have developed and attempted to validate research instruments, there has been little success in either constituency in developing a valid and practical nationally standardized data format for collecting and reporting outcomes.
Activities that are listed in this section of the report are recommended for incorporation into the State Plan for Independent Living under Section 704, which spells out each state's goals and objectives, plan for the provision of resources, and evaluation plan for independent living programs.
Employability/employment approaches currently practiced in independent living programs: A resource document.
With passage of the 1978 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act, the legislative mechanism for supporting independent living programs was established through Title VII.
We now have a wide range of local residential facilities - including crisis respite care programs, group homes, foster homes and independent living programs - for more than 500 persons.
When Fred Thompson's mother, Pam, told him about the Transition to Independent Living program at Taft College, he felt indecisive.
Given the large numbers of elderly blind people, it is essential that efforts be made to expand the independent living program for this population throughout the country.
In conjunction with a research and demonstration project designed in part to support independent living programs (ILPs) in their efforts to increase activities addressing employability development and employment of their clientele, a national survey to ascertain the extent to which ILPs currently provide employment services was conducted.
Importantly, it provides a vehicle for documenting and communicating to major stakeholders and key audiences the scope and impact of the independent living program.
The following instruments were administered to all subjects: the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); the Restrictiveness of Living Arrangements scale; the Attitudes Toward Persons with Disability (ATDP); the Independent Living Program Questionnaire (ILPQ); and the Program Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ).
This can be an especially helpful reference to professionals in the field who may be planning an Independent living Program. It can be helpful in gaining an understanding of the current status of Independent Living in service delivery systems currently underway.

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