Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir:

see KashmirKashmir
, region and former princely state, 85,714 sq mi (222,236 sq km), NW India, NE Pakistan, and SW China. Kashmir is bordered on the west by Pakistan, on the south by India, and on the north and east by China.
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Jammu and Kashmir


(Kashmir), a territory in South Asia. Area, 222,000 sq km. Population approximately 5 million. Under the Indian constitution, Jammu and Kashmir is a state in the Republic of India. The chief city is Srinagar. A part of Jammu and Kashmir is controlled by the government of Pakistan.

Natural features. The territory of Jammu and Kashmir is crossed from northwest to southeast by high mountain ridges that are part of the Karakoram Range and the western Himalayas. There are glaciers, and on the slopes there are coniferous and broad-leaved forests. In the northeast the climate is mountain subtropical, which is dry with below-freezing winters. The southwest is monsoonal and warm. The important rivers are the Indus, with its tributary the Gilgit, and the Jhelum. The best developed and economically the most important area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir, located in the southwest at an elevation of approximately 1,600 m, between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayas.

Economy. More than 80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture. The sown area totals approximately 700,000 hectares (ha), of which 312,000 ha are irrigated. Concentrated in the Vale of Kashmir is one-third of all the arable land and most of the staple crops—rice (area sown, 239,000 ha; yield in 1968-69, 487,000 tons), wheat (200,000 ha sown; 210,000 tons), and corn (241,000 ha sown; 222,000 tons). Market gardens, orchards (walnuts, almonds, apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits), and plantations of medicinal herbs are of commercial importance. The range breeding of sheep (1.2 million head), goat raising (600,000 head), cattle raising (1.8 million head), and buffalo raising (400,000 head in 1966) also play an important part in the economy. A traditional occupation is the raising of silkworms.

The principal export from Jammu and Kashmir to other areas of the country is timber. Resin is collected in the forests, and fur resources are exploited (otters and leopards). Hydroelectric power resources are estimated at 6.6 million kilowatts, with a total power station capacity of approximately 44,000 kilowatts (1969). There is extensive cottage industry producing rugs, shawls, embroidery, jewelry, and items made of wood, papier-mâhe, and leather. There are silk-reeling and woolen mills, woodworking and machine shops, and leather and rug workshops in Jammu and Kashmir.

The mild climate and scenic landscapes of the Vale of Kashmir have won it fame as an international tourist attraction.


Jammu and Kashmir

the official name for the part of Kashmir under Indian control
References in periodicals archive ?
An increase in infiltration had in any case been expected as the winter snows melt, opening mountain passes between Pakistani and Indian Kashmir.
The US and Israeli military personnel are assisting over 800,000 Indian soldiers posted in Indian Kashmir," he said.
Hundreds of people queued up outside banks in Srinagar, the summer capital of Indian Kashmir, and crowds thronged around markets to buy essential supplies.
Passengers on a historic bus trip from Pakistani Kashmir crossed a bridge into Indian Kashmir on Thursday, becoming the first people to do so in over five decades.
Last Thursday, three suspected militants stormed a police station and an army base in the southernmost part of Indian Kashmir, killing ten people -- including four soldiers, four police and two civilians.
The long-standing row has deeply polarised Indian Kashmir, split between the Muslim-majority Kashmir valley and the Hindu-dominated region around Jammu city, severely curbing trade between the two areas.
Fourteen Pakistani lorries carrying rice, onions and dried fruit, crossed a bridge into Indian Kashmir after the trade route was formally opened on Tuesday, while vehicles from India carried goods the opposite direction.
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3 killed, 6 hurt in militant attack in Indian Kashmir
Indian forces captured a vital peak in Indian Kashmir yesterday, virtually wresting control of a key national highway from Islamic guerrillas after three weeks of intense air strikes and ground attacks, the Defence Ministry said.
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Nearly 50,000 people have been killed in Indian Kashmir since the commencement of insurgency in the late 1980s that India says is sponsored by Pakistan.
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