The results indicated that, for a greater success in the selection process aiming to increase soybean grain yield, the genotypes with the highest number of pods per plant and mainly with the highest number of seeds per plant were the most favorable, presenting the highest potential for an efficient indirect selection
. lndirect selection with the aim at increasing grain yield, together with the resistance to the soybean cyst nematode, may represent an efficient strategy to be adopted for the optimization of the genetic gain in soybean.
Therefore, as r and direct effect had the same sign and similar magnitude, it can be inferred that the number of pods have positive relation with the fresh and dry matter of pods and it can be used for indirect selection
. The high magnitude linear association (r = 0.789) between the FMP and DMP traits (Table 1) explains the similar results of these two path analyzes (Table 2).
The gains obtained by direct selection were higher than those of indirect selection
. But, sometimes the indirect selection
may be more efficient, especially if the secondary trait is highly correlated with yield and is easily measurable .
However the number of spikes is a trait easily assessed visually, and could be a useful indirect selection
criterion to improve grain yield potential.
The response of target traits to indirect selection
was assessed by examining the heritability of the candidate indicator traits and the target traits and the genetic correlation between these traits.
Selection for a trait in plant breeding can be held in two ways; direct selection by measuring this trait as a classical method or indirect selection
considering with other traits.
1986), may have pleiotropic effects on other characters affecting fitness, and that therefore the evolution of floral displays may be constrained, or even driven, by indirect selection
imposed on these other characters (Lande 1979, Charlesworth 1990).
Genetic correlations between traits can result in differentiation with respect to traits that are not related to fitness if there is sufficient indirect selection
(Darwin 1859, Gould and Lewontin 1979, Lande and Arnold 1983).
The shape of the growth is depicted with growth curves drawn by non-linear functions whose biological parameters were evaluated as indirect selection
criteria for goat breeding program.
Thus, the breeder should verify which characters should act on the selection index, as well as associate the direct and indirect selection
for the increase in genetic gains of the most interesting character (Teixeira et al., 2012).
The results indicate the possibility of performing indirect selection
via fruit diameter to consequently obtain heavier fruits.
Therefore, it is possible to make indirect selection
. It is possible to predict that cultivars with higher plants will have late flowering, which is not interesting from the point of view of research about sunflower, which seeks genotypes with lower cycle, focusing on the use as a second crop.