Indirect Speech

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reported speech

When we tell other people what someone else told us, it is called indirect or reported speech. We use reporting verbs to introduce the information that was spoken previously.
The most common so-called “reporting verbs” are say and tell. When we use tell, we need to use another person’s name, or a personal pronoun representing him or her, as an indirect object.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Indirect Speech


or indirect discourse, the speech of some person transmitted by a speaker (or writer) in a sentence clause subordinate to his own phrase, which introduces the discourse.

During the transmission of indirect speech, the utterance is transformed according to certain rules. For example, the indirect speech of a third person is transmitted as (in Russian): On skazal, chto budet doma (”He said that he will be at home”).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pragmatic categories under which all the wrong answers were classified were mostly lexicalized trope-inferences (LTI), implicatures (I) and indirect speech acts (ISA).
As Fleetwood notices the letter, the narration moves from indirect speech to direct speech:
Theagenes' indirect speech reflects Charicleia's vocabulary ([phrase omitted] (4,18,6) = [phrase omitted] (4,18,4); [phrase omitted] (4,18,6) = [phrase omitted] (4,18,4)).
Based on the analysis, there are findings which refute the theory proposed Rahardi (2009 in Putrayasa, 2014: 92), which says that the sentence orders impossible can be used indirectly to declare is not a command, so according to his sentence only bermodus news and modus just ask which can be used to express indirect speech acts.
speech for creating effects of presence and indirect speech for curbing
Using the speech act theory as described in How to Do Things with Words by Austin (1962) and Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language (1969) by Searle as an investigative tool we will analyse the crucial conversation between the two characters especially Nora's utterances where she uses direct speech acts and what she reserves by using indirect speech acts.
An accomplished writer, she presents in her writings a mix of realism, biting social commentary and a masterful use of free indirect speech. Her two-volume autobiography, "Homeless Nomads (English translation, 'Pebbles in a Tin drum') and "the Residue" (Khana Badosh and Koorha Kabaarha), tells the tale of her enduring odyssey - literary, social and cultural.
Some of these theories include Austin's speech act theory, the co-operative principle of Grice, Searle's indirect speech act; Bach and Harnish's intention and inference, the balanced and unified theory postulated by Adegbija, Allan's classification of speech acts, Lawal's aspect of a pragmatic theory and Leech's cross-cultural pragmatics.
Researchers scanned the brains of 18 participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they listened to audio clips of short stories containing direct or indirect speech quotations.
Tutors, like teachers, should "suspend politeness (indirect speech acts and hedging) in favor of clarity (direct speech acts) when working with non-native speakers of English" (Baker 77).
As a narrative technique, free indirect discourse (FID)--encompassing both free indirect speech (FIS) and free indirect thought (FIT)--serves a variety of functions.