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Related to Indo-European: Indo-European languages

See also: Indo-European Family of Languages, The (table)The Indo-European Family of Languages
Subfamily Group Subgroup Languages and Principal Dialects
Anatolian     Hieroglypic Hittite*, Hittite (Kanesian)*, Luwian*, Lycian*, Lydian*, Palaic*
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family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language. The Indo-European family is so named because at one time its individual members were prevalent mainly in an area between and including India and Europe, although not all languages spoken in this region were Indo-European. Today, however, the Indo-European languages have spread to every continent and a number of islands. It should be stressed that the term Indo-European describes language only and is not used scientifically in an ethnic or cultural sense. The languages classified as Indo-European are sufficiently similar to form one major linguistic division.

The characteristics Indo-European languages share with respect to vocabulary and grammar have led many scholars to postulate that they are all descended from an original parent language, called Proto-Indo-European, which is believed to have been spoken some time before 4000 B.C., perhaps before 8000 B.C. or earlier. Since there are no written records of Proto-Indo-European, it apparently was in use before writing was known to its speakers. Even its existence is an assumption, although a plausible one and the only really satisfactory explanation of the common features of the modern Indo-European languages. There has been much speculation as to the region where the speakers of Proto-Indo-European first lived and the nature of their culture, but nothing definite is known. One theory of the origin of the individual Indo-European languages suggests that as the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European migrated or moved away from each other, losing contact, their language broke up into a number of tongues. These tongues later also split up still further, eventually giving rise to the many modern Indo-European languages. For a classification of Indo-European subfamilies, groups, subgroups, and individual languages, see the table entitled The Indo-European Family of LanguagesThe Indo-European Family of Languages
Subfamily Group Subgroup Languages and Principal Dialects
Anatolian     Hieroglypic Hittite*, Hittite (Kanesian)*, Luwian*, Lycian*, Lydian*, Palaic*
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. By studying the vocabulary and grammar of the various daughter languages of which there are records, scholars have tried to reconstruct Proto-Indo-European and infer some of its characteristics. It appears to have been highly inflected in a distinctive way. Apparently, it also had three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter) for nouns, pronouns, and adjectives; eight cases for the noun; agreement between adjectives and nouns; and a free accent (i.e., one that could be placed on any syllable).

The descendant languages have all tended to discard to a greater or lesser extent these features of the mother tongue and to become simplified. For example, they substitute increasingly the use of word order and prepositions for inflections to indicate the relationships of words in a sentence. There also exists among the Indo-European languages a similarity of basic words (such as words denoting kinship, numerals, and parts of the body) that points to a common origin. Different forms of writing for the various Indo-European languages used both in ancient and modern times include cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and a number of alphabets, among them the Devanagari, Greek, Roman, and Arabic scripts.

See articles on many of the Indo-European subfamilies, groups, and languages.


See also E. Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (tr. 1973); P. Baldi, An Introduction to the Indo-European Languages (1983).

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1. denoting, belonging to, or relating to a family of languages that includes English and many other culturally and politically important languages of the world: a characteristic feature, esp of the older languages such as Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, is inflection showing gender, number, and case
2. denoting or relating to the hypothetical parent language of this family, primitive Indo-European
3. denoting, belonging to, or relating to any of the peoples speaking these languages
4. the Indo-European family of languages
5. the reconstructed hypothetical parent language of this family
6. a member of the prehistoric people who spoke this language
7. a descendant of this people or a native speaker of an Indo-European language
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
unearthing the achievements Indo-European Linguistics offered him, since
It belongs to Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan languages and has lexical similarity with Munji, a language spoken across the border in Afghanistan.
Daredevil free spirits always ready to fight and prove themselves, intolerant of any imposition on their personal status, and well nourished by their meat diet, these "Indo-European speakers" were physically strong warriors, who, on top of everything, became extremely mobile by being the first in history to domesticate horses.
Related are Indo-European *ter-, Altaic *t"iaru, Uralic *torV, and Dravidian *tor-.
In what follows we shall use the character *N to represent one or another of the Indo-European nasal phonemes.
In the final suggestions, the author calls for relevant attention to other Indo-European language groups, first of all to Tocharian and Baltic.
In maintaining that the classical languages of India, the Near East and Europe descend from a common source, Jones was making an imaginative leap which effectively marked the beginning of Indo-European comparative grammar and modern comparative-historical linguistics.
The etymological analysis of Burushaski shepherd vocabulary shows that almost all the pastoral terms in this language are of Indo-European origin (some thirty independently of Indie and Iranian), with a significant proportion showing close correlations with the Paleobalkanic substratal shepherd terms.
In conclusion I should say that this book is not easy to read, but persistent and interested readers will be rewarded by a deep knowledge of the numerous phenomena which Indo-European studies seek to understand.
The introduction gives a careful explanation of the aims of comparative linguistics, the history of etymological research, the concepts with which the reader will be confronted, and the Indo-European language family as an object of study.
One was expanding from the Black Sea/Caspian region and spoke an Indo-European language.
Its shortcomings rest in the decision to limit its examination of these tales to only those from the Indo-European tradition and its superficial analysis of the sociological impacts these tales have had upon society today.

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