Indo-Gangetic Plain


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Indo-Gangetic Plain

 

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately 3,000 km long and 250-350 km wide.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented products from the contiguous Himalayan slopes and covered with old and recent alluvia. The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to the Indus and Ganges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60 m divided by ravines. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequatorial monsoon. A tropical climate prevails in the western region (Indus basin). Monsoon circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate. Over large areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from 30° to 36°C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20°C (in the northwest, 12°C). Temperature drops to 0°C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500 mm in the southeast to 100-150 mm in the southwest.

The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (known as the Panjnad in its lower course), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punjab); the Ganges with the Jamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghara, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized by considerable fluctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the impact of monsoons and thawing of mountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent. Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.

An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain. Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the east in the Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the west there are salt marshes and sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural vegetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, wheat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) with separate groves of palms and fruit trees. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the moister Ganges Plain.

L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
During the spring, westerly winds pluck dust and sand from the Thar and blow it toward the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Srivastava P, Pal DK (1998) Clay mineralogy of pedogenic calcrete: A complementary approach to infer the climatic change in soils of the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Pictures of elephants indicate the region of the Indo-Gangetic plain in north India.
The 114-year-old bank, which has an extensive network (4,525 offices) all over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, has, in recent times, proactively set the benchmarks for the industry.
Afzali's question legitimately resounds not only across the Hindukush today, but also southwards to the Indus and beyond towards the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Mapped on top of the vast Indo-Gangetic Plain, the archaeological and geological data shows instead that settlements bloomed along the Indus from the coast to the hills fronting the Himalayas, as weakened monsoons and reduced run-off from the mountains tamed the wild Indus and its Himalayan tributaries enough to enable agriculture along their banks.
Why: Because the national park, spread over more than 800 sq km is the perfect example of the Terai eco system, a combination of marshy grasslands, forests and savannahs located on the outer foothills of the Himalayas and Siwalik hills in the north Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The fertile soil found in Indo-Gangetic plains is most appropriate to grow peppermint.
During their long journey, the due will travel through the Himalayas, criss-crossing Indo-Gangetic plains and Deccan plateau, to the Indian Ocean coast.
Monsoon has revived over northern India after deficit rainfall in July and August, bringing rains in the Indo-Gangetic plains and snow in the Himalayas.
While remote mountainous areas like Kulu-Manali are more in the news as poppy cultivation areas, mostly due to the illicit crops destroyed, the highest yields come from the Indo-Gangetic plains constituting Uttar Pradesh and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
The message of the sand art held on the banks of Sangam, the confluence of rivers Ganga and its tributary Yamuna, is to save the rivers, which are the lifeline of the northern Indo-Gangetic plains, from extinction.

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