Four additional uremic retention solutes, creatinine, hypoxanthine, indoxyl sulpate and hippuric acid, were identified from the HPLC profiles contributing to the UV absorbance.
49 mmol/L (N = 15) (N = 15) Creatinine, 735 [+ or -] 172 311 [+ or -]106 [micro]mol/L (N = 15) (N = 15) Uric acid, 356 [+ or -] 98 116 [+ or -] 51 [micro]mol/L (N = 15) (N = 15) Indoxyl sulphate, 6.
The first steps in the chemical reactions towards purple are probably the degradation of the essential amino acid tryptophan to indole and the hydroxylation into the colorless indoxyl (Verhecken 1989).
This indoxyl is then excreted in the urine as a sulfate conjugate and is decomposed to indigo and indirubin by bacteria (Hoessel et al.
Those indoxyls, which have substituents in the 2-position, are oxidized to indoleninones that dimerise to give the green photolabile tyriverdin.
Indoxyl sulfate stimulates renal synthesis of transforming growth factor-R 1 and progression of renal failure.
Interaction mechanism between indoxyl sulfate, a typical uremic toxin bound to site II, and ligands bound to site I of human serum albumin.
11] showed that indoxyl sulfate (IS) (3), one of these uremic toxins, competitively inhibits the binding of furosemide to bovine serum albumin.
A furan fatty acid and indoxyl sulfate are the putative inhibitors of thyroxine hepatocyte transport in uremia.
Other known metabolites in this part of the spectrum are tyrosine, phenylalanine, formic acid, indoxyl
sulfate, histidine, and hippuric acid.