Interestingly, in this analysis indoxyl
sulfate was clustered with the group of strong AhR agonists (Cluster 2).
These changes in buffering components are quite interesting to say the least, although they are yet an underestimated possibility in improving the inadequate indoxyl
sulfate elimination during renal replacement therapy.
Microbial diversity is significantly damaged in CKD patients, with a decreased number of beneficial bacteria that generate SCFAs and an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins (indoxyl
sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and TMAO) .
Indolecarboxylic acid ester [right arrow] Indoxyl
Meyer, "The production of p-Cresol sulfate and indoxyl
sulfate in vegetarians versus omnivores," Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
Nevertheless, other familiar metabolites reported such as indoxyl
, oxindole, anthranilate, salicylate and gentisic acid, and hydroxyindole in similar researches were not observed .
Pan et al., "Indoxyl
sulfate predicts cardiovascular disease and renal function deterioration in advanced chronic kidney disease," Archives of Medical Research, vol.
Tyrosine can be fermented in the large intestine, resulting in the microbial formation of p-cresol and indoxyl
(a phenolic compound), which after hepatic sulfation become p-cresyl sulfate and phenol sulfate [24, 45].
These metabolites mainly are amino acids, hydroxyl acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and several indole-containing metabolites such as indoxyl
sulfate, 3-indolepropionic acid, and serotonin.
Upon obtaining the colonies, the biochemical tests including catalase, Indoxyl
acetate hydrolysis were used and in order to differentiate between the two species Jejuni and Coli hippurate hydrolysis test was conducted, which was positive for Jejuni (1).
However in our laboratory setup, histochemical staining for enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, phosphorylase, succinic dehydrogenase, indoxyl
esterase, and acid phosphatase was not available; they were not performed.