Indoxyl


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indoxyl

[in′däk·səl]
(organic chemistry)
(C8H6N)OH A yellow crystalline glycoside, used as an intermediate in the manufacture of indigo.

Indoxyl

 

pale yellow crystals with an unpleasant odor; melting point, 85°C. The substance exists in two tautomeric forms:

Indoxyl is present in the urine of human beings and animals as the potassium salt of 3-indoxyl sulfuric acid (urinary indican) and in the juices of certain tropical plants (in the form of glycosides), from which it can be obtained by hydrolysis.

Indoxyl is an important intermediate product in the synthesis of indigo, a dye formed during the oxidation of indoxyl. Reduction of indoxyl yields indole.

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Interestingly, in this analysis indoxyl sulfate was clustered with the group of strong AhR agonists (Cluster 2).
These changes in buffering components are quite interesting to say the least, although they are yet an underestimated possibility in improving the inadequate indoxyl sulfate elimination during renal replacement therapy.
Microbial diversity is significantly damaged in CKD patients, with a decreased number of beneficial bacteria that generate SCFAs and an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and TMAO) [52].
Meyer, "The production of p-Cresol sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in vegetarians versus omnivores," Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
Nevertheless, other familiar metabolites reported such as indoxyl, oxindole, anthranilate, salicylate and gentisic acid, and hydroxyindole in similar researches were not observed [14].
Pan et al., "Indoxyl sulfate predicts cardiovascular disease and renal function deterioration in advanced chronic kidney disease," Archives of Medical Research, vol.
Tyrosine can be fermented in the large intestine, resulting in the microbial formation of p-cresol and indoxyl (a phenolic compound), which after hepatic sulfation become p-cresyl sulfate and phenol sulfate [24, 45].
These metabolites mainly are amino acids, hydroxyl acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and several indole-containing metabolites such as indoxyl sulfate, 3-indolepropionic acid, and serotonin.
Upon obtaining the colonies, the biochemical tests including catalase, Indoxyl acetate hydrolysis were used and in order to differentiate between the two species Jejuni and Coli hippurate hydrolysis test was conducted, which was positive for Jejuni (1).
However in our laboratory setup, histochemical staining for enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, phosphorylase, succinic dehydrogenase, indoxyl esterase, and acid phosphatase was not available; they were not performed.
Indoxyl Acetate 500 gm,34.Magnesium citrate 01 kg,35.Magnesium sulphate 01 kg,36.Malachite green powder, A.R Grade 500 gm,37.Methanol Purified, A.R Grade 10 Litter,38.Methyl red indicator (approx 120 ml each pack) 10 Pkt,39.N-naphthylethylene-diamide, A.R Grade 500 gm,40.Para Nitrobenzoic Acid (PNB), A.R Grade 500 gm