Indus valley civilization

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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan. At its height, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
It also provided further clues for studying the expansion of the Indus civilization in south-western Pakistan, she said adding that her team is currently focusing on details of transition linking pre-Indus and Indus civilisation periods.
TWORAINS will investigate the resilience and sustainability of South Asia s first complex society, the Indus Civilisation (c.
The resulting drought coincided with the beginning of the decline of the metropolis-building Indus Civilisation, which spanned present-day Pakistan and India, suggesting that climate change could be why many of the major cities of the civilisation were abandoned.
Today, the most important site of the Indus civilisation lies in Pakistan.
In this paper we map dated settlements located in the hills west of the upper Indus, showing how agriculture developed there before descending onto the plain where it was to provide the motor for the Indus civilisation (Figure 1; Table 1).
C Mayo, Rotherham ARECENT archaeological evidence suggests that Tamil spoken in the Indian sub-continent could have been the language used by the Indus civilisation and even the Sumerians.
The Indus civilisation is believed to have existed from 2350-1800 BC, but the exact knowledge is difficult as no records have survived.
According to National Geographic, Dholavira is India's most spectacular Indus civilisation site.
1) postulate that it reached the Indus civilisation in India by 2 500 BC, Asia Minor and the Levant 1 000 years later, and the Egyptian and Ganges civilisations by 1 000 BC.
Great Civilisations; Indus (C4, 8pm) tells the story of the ancient Indus civilisation named after the river which flows through what is now North Pakistan.
Mohenjodaro was a major centre of the pre-Hindu Indus civilisation, which dates back to 3000 BC, and was uncovered by the archaeologists in the 20th century.
Little is known about this in the borderlands of the Indus civilisation, or about the connections and influences that may have existed between the Iranian Hateau, Central Asia and the north-western edge of the Indian subcontinent.