Indus valley civilization

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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C. At its greatest extent, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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Bibliography

See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
He added that MCC is a cultural organisation belonging to the Indus Valley civilisation, whose history dates back 5,000 years and extends from Kashmir in the north to Karachi in the south, and of which Mohenjo-Daro is an icon.
Giving example of the Indus Valley Civilisation, he said there was nothing to glorify about war in that civilisation but they excelled in arts.
Sheherezade Alam and potters from Harappa engaged visitors in recreating seals from the ancient Indus Valley civilisation.
What sets the site apart is its relationship with the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation, which mostly covered parts of present day Pakistan and north and northwest India.
KARACHI -- Nations always feel proud upon their glorious history, therefore, we should also feel proud on our one of the most ancient civilisation of the world, Indus valley civilisation .
Pakistan High Commissioner to the UK, Syed Ibne Abbas on the opening of the Musical said: 'ISHQ the Musical presents the rich cultural ethos of Pakistan, which is the custodian of the oldest civilisation of the world-the Indus Valley Civilisation.
I discussed the role played by Bahrain as a communication centre between Dilmun, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley civilisation and Majan (Oman)," said Mr Suwaileh.
He said that Pakistan was famous for its Indus Valley civilisation sites at Moenjodaro and Harappa.
Lahore's leading designer Ansa Zafar created furniture for Sarhad while Salahuddin Michu created ceramic jaali panels with exquisite motifs of the Lahore Fort and Indus Valley civilisation.
The movie, a fictitious tale set in the 'Mohenjo Daro' segment of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation has already hit optimal hopes amongst cinephiles with its novel trailer.
The film, which is set in the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro in the era of the Indus Valley civilisation that dates back to 2600 BC, will clash with Akshay Kumar's 'Rustom' at the box office.
THE Indus Valley civilisation, popularly known as Harappan civilisation, has been a puzzle for several decades now.