Indus valley civilization

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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C. At its greatest extent, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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Bibliography

See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
The results of their analysis counter longstanding claims that the Indus civilization developed as a peaceful, cooperative, and egalitarian state-level society, without social differentiation, hierarchy, or differences in access to basic resources.
Silk is another fibre that was first used during the Indus civilization, and so far there are two examples of silk fibre from Harappa that were used for threading beads.
Gregory Possehl's monograph on the Indus Civilization is also very useful: while it is not too difficult to find archeological studies of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, studies of the indigenous religion are harder to come by.
We reconstructed the dynamic landscape of the plain where the Indus civilization developed 5200 years ago, built its cities, and slowly disintegrated between 3900 and 3000 years ago," Liviu Giosan, a geologist with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), lead author of the study said.
Ubaidullah Qadri: The Gems and Jewelry sector in Pakistan is as old as the history of Indus civilization and will remain deeply rooted in our culture, heritage, and history.
One exception might be Ramaprasad Chanda, who in the 1920s published on similarities between the Indus civilization and Vedic culture, a harbinger of a contemporary debate (1926: The Indus Valley in the Vedic Period; 1929: Survival of the Prehistoric Civilization of the Indus Valley).
Coverage includes the location of the Indus civilization and its environmental setting; historical and chronological setting; origins, growth, and decline; economics; resources, trade, and communications; settlements; social and political organization; religion and ideology; material culture; intellectual accomplishments; and the Indus civilization today.
C MUET said that in the present scenario when our country is surrounded by extremism the artists can play major role to promote harmony, peace and love in the region in which the people of Indus Civilization believe since centuries.
While at the later stage of Mature Bronze Age, Indus Civilization expended eastward beyond Saraswati or Gahkkar-Hakra river as attested at the sites of Lothal, Kalibangan and Dholavira etc, in India, he said.
MANDHRO: Crops are the only lifeline in Sindh as it has been from the early human history of Indus civilization.
The findings provide quantitative evidence suggesting that the people of the 4,500-year-old Indus civilization may have used writing to represent linguistic content," said project leader Rajesh Rao, a computer scientist at the University of Washington.