Indus valley civilization

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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C. At its greatest extent, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

References in periodicals archive ?
These views were expressed by Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, (MAJU) Karachi faculty member of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Ali Nasir during his second lecture on Indus valley civilization last evening.
C] overlay due to Sanskrit traditions, for the destruction of the Indus valley civilization.
Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BE, and an
Archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.
Moving further south, the culture of Sindh traces its roots back to the Indus Valley Civilization that survived and flourished alongside the banks of the River Indus.
Each of the hundreds of towns and cities along the banks of the river were identical, as if the Indus Valley Civilization was conceptualized, planned and constructed according to one model.
KARACHI -- Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi Business Administration and Social Sciences Faculty launched a series of lectures on Indus Valley civilization to create awareness among the young students about historical fact of this subcontinent in which they are living.
University said on the occasion that Pakistan and China have old relationship through their civilizations-the Indus Valley Civilization and Yellow River Civilization.
In fact, cotton cultivation in Sindh dates as far back as 5,000 years ago to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Punjab is part of the Indus Valley Civilization more than 4000 years old; the main site in Punjab was the city of Harrapa.
Much like the duo's former association, the future film is also expected to be another period drama with Indus Valley civilization as its setting.
According to the group of scholars and archaeologists, the opening ceremony of the Sindh cultural festival is capable of damaging the ruins of Mohenjo Daro - the world's oldest surviving city dating back to the pre-Hindu Indus Valley civilization, the BBC reported.