Indus valley civilization


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Indus valley civilization,

ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan, and was at its height from about 2600 B.C. to about 1900 B.C. At its greatest extent, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. Since 1921 this civilization has been revealed by spectacular finds at Mohenjo-Daro, an archaeological site in NW Sind, and at Harappa, in central Punjab near the Ravi River. These sites, each of which measures more than 3 mi (5 km) in circumference, were once great urban centers, the chief cities of the Indus civilization. They had large and complex hill citadels, housing palaces, granaries, and baths that were probably used for sacred ablutions; the great bath at Mohenjo-Daro was c.40 ft (12 m) long and 23 ft (7 m) wide. Beyond the citadels were well-planned towns, laid out in rectangular patterns. Houses, often two-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. The arts flourished there, and many objects of copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toys, have been uncovered. Most notable, however, are the steatite seals, exquisitely engraved with animal figures and often bearing a line of pictographic script. On some seals are depicted a bo tree or, as some authorities hold, a Babylonian tree of life, and others have as their central figure the god Shiva, who later became preeminent in the Hindu pantheon. The writing, long a riddle to archaeologists, has yet to be satisfactorily deciphered; the language appears to be structurally related to the Dravidian languages. The origin, rise, and decline of the Indus valley civilization remain a mystery, but it seems most probable that the civilization fell (c.1500 B.C.) to invading AryansAryan
, [Sanskrit,=noble], term formerly used to designate the Indo-European race or language family or its Indo-Iranian subgroup. Originally a group of nomadic tribes, the Aryans were part of a great migratory movement that spread in successive waves from S Russia and Turkistan
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Bibliography

See Sir John Marshall, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization (3 vol., 1931); E. J. H. MacKay, The Indus Civilization (1935, repr. 1983); S. Piggott, Prehistoric India (1950); Sir Mortimer Wheeler, The Indus Civilization (3d ed. 1968); J. H. Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations (1973); N. Lahiri, Finding Forgotten Cities: How the Indus Civilization was Discovered (2013).

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References in periodicals archive ?
To decipher the reality of the Indus Valley Civilization must be the passion of every archeologist.
Each of the hundreds of towns and cities along the banks of the river were identical, as if the Indus Valley Civilization was conceptualized, planned and constructed according to one model...
Later, the CJCSC was to interact with Omani civil society and Pakistanis at an event hosted by the Ambassador with over 75 salient participants including DG External Affairs, Ministry of Information, Chairman 'al Roya Forum' and Muscat Media Group, President Omani Society for Writers and Literati, Indus Valley Civilization expert, CEO Slam Air, businessmen historians, intellectuals, authors, poets and columnists.
KARACHI -- Nations always feels proud upon their glorious history, therefore, we should also feel proud on our one of the most ancient civilization of the world Indus valley civilization.
The chronicles of ancient Indus Valley Civilization and its available cultural literature proving the better living standard in the ancient eras of that river bank human settlements.
The show featured the photographs on Indus Valley Civilization
Samad, who is also project Director said that Gomal valley of KP is rich in Archaeology and revealed evidences of the origin of Indus valley civilization. This site excavation has proved that KP is birthplace of Indus valley civilization, he said.
Much like the duo's former association, the future film is also expected to be another period drama with Indus Valley civilization as its setting.
According to the group of scholars and archaeologists, the opening ceremony of the Sindh cultural festival is capable of damaging the ruins of Mohenjo Daro - the world's oldest surviving city dating back to the pre-Hindu Indus Valley civilization, the BBC reported.
Ghulam Hussain hails from a place home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, Indus Valley Civilization. He trained in miniature painting from National College of Arts Lahore.
Speaking at the program which was organized by SMIU in connection of the International Women's Day, on Friday at its Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto Auditorium, Shaikh said in the days of ancient civilizations as Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia and Egyptian Civilizations, women were enjoying equal rights to men, but later on their rights were snatched and were made slaves.