Industrial Crop


Also found in: Wikipedia.

industrial crop

[in′dəs·trē·əl ¦kräp]
(agriculture)
Any crop that provides materials for industrial processes and products such as soybeans, cotton (lint and seed), flax, and tobacco.

Industrial Crop

 

a cultivated plant that is used as raw material by any one of various branches of industry. They are divided into several groups according to the product obtained. Starch-bearing crops, which contain starch in their tubers, include potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams. Sugar-bearing plants contain sugar in their stems (sugarcane, sugar maple), roots (sugar beet), or flowers (gomutiand wine palms). Oil crops—plants in whose seeds and fruits vegetable oils accumulate—include the sunflower, peanut, soybean, castor-oil plant, rape, sesame, mustard, oil flax, coconut palm, African oil palm, olive, and tung. In essential-oil crops, essential oils accumulate in the aboveground shoots (mint, geranium, East Indian basil), flowers (essential-oil rose, lavender, tuberose, lilac), fruits (coriander, anise, fennel), or roots and rootstocks (vetiver, iris). Textile crops, including bast crops, contain textile fibers in their stems (common flax, jute, ambary, hemp), leaves (New Zealand flax), seeds (cotton), or fruits (ceiba).

Other important groups of industrial crops include those that yield rubber (hevea, guayule), gutta-percha (spindle tree, Eucommia, Palaquium, Payena), tannins (smoke tree, Siberian tea, some species of oak, spruce, larch), dyes (madder, woad, Japanese pagoda tree, saffron, safflower, some species of Indigofera), medicinal substances (valerian, foxglove, belladonna, cinchona, ginseng), narcotics (tobacco, Indian tobacco, jute, opium poppy), and cork (cork tree, cork oak). Other important industrial crops are hops and teasel.

Some industrial crops have double uses. For example, common flax, hemp, and cotton yield both fiber and fatty oil. Madder and opium poppy have medicinal uses, and coriander, caraway, and anise yield both essential and fatty oils.

Industrial crops include both annuals (flax, potatoes, sunflower, caraway) and perennials (olive, essential-oil rose, hevea, hops, ginseng). They belong to many botanical families, including Solanaceae (potatoes, tobacco), Compositae (sunflower, safflower), Cruciferae (rape, mustard), and Rosaceae (essential-oil rose). Industrial crops grow in various geographic zones: for example, palms, olives, tung trees, and sugarcane are found in tropical and subtropical regions, and sunflowers, flax, and sugar beets are raised principally in middle and temperate latitudes.

Industrial crops grown in the USSR include potatoes, sunflowers, sugar beets, cotton, flax, hemp, tobacco, Indian tobacco, and medicinal plants. They occupied 11.8 million hectares (ha) in 1940,15.3 million ha in 1965, 14.5 million ha in 1970, and 14.7 million ha in 1974.

REFERENCES

See references under OIL PLANTS, BAST CROPS, and DYE PLANTS.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sok Vanna, the deputy director of the industrial crop department at the Ministry of Agriculture, said cotton has not been on the ministry's radar for many years.
A Quebec company is taking a unique approach to cleaning up oil spills by producing the world's only industrial crop of milkweed that will be used as new kind of absorbent.
Future hemp producers hope this industrial crop will again become an important commodity for rural America.
Jeff Martin, chief executive officer, president and co-founder of Yulex Corporation, said, 'We are proud to launch our new, international guayule Seed & Genetics Centre in Arizona, as it validates Yulex's growing agricultural footprint and the demand for guayule as a viable, industrial crop that can sustainably meet the growing global demand for rubber.'
A Hemp is no longer a blast from the past; it's becoming more widely recognized as a low-input, sustainable industrial crop with a potential for making everything from textiles and paper to biofuel.
'The December issue included stories on fuel cell technology, wastewater treatment, cuphea as an industrial crop, biomass production techniques, wheat straw used as a biocomposite, projects tbr sustainable forestry, energy crop research, ethanol funding, and ethanol plant technologies.
The European Commission's own figures show that cultivation of industrial crop accounts for only 4 percent of agricultural land usage in the EU.
If you look up hemp as a topic all you get is the drug mumbo-jumbo and nothing about the industrial crop. Once you have found stuff like the war-time movie put out by the US gov't called "Hemp for Victory" (encouraging American farmers to grow hemp) you can post back on here and let us all in on where you got your info.
Sugarcane is an important industrial crop used for sugar and bioenergy in Thailand and around the world.
The Department of Agriculture (DA) in Region 2 is promoting industrial crop production to help boost regional economy and ensure food security of the growing population in the region.
Tobacco expert panel at yesterday's event has indicated that Tobacco is considered as an Industrial Crop, more than a commercial crop and since the bulk of the harvest is used for nicotine products, it immediately ends up in industrial/machine processing, unlike many other commercial crops.

Full browser ?