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in Russia, a public display of the country’s industrial products. Industrial exhibitions stimulated the development of industry, served advertising purposes, and promoted the development of domestic and foreign trade. They were organized according to rules ratified by the Manufacturing Council in October 1828. The council selected exhibition committees and supervised their work. Factory and handicraft articles (with the exception of cumbersome items) were exhibited without payment of guild taxes; factory stamps certifying their domestic origin were required, however.
The first industrial exhibition in Russia opened in St. Petersburg in 1829. Beginning in 1836 industrial exhibitions were held in St. Petersburg and Moscow every four years. Later they were held in various cities: in St. Petersburg in 1849, in Moscow in 1853, and in Warsaw in 1857. After 1861 exhibitions were held less often, but the number of participants increased and the assortment of goods was more varied. The largest industrial exhibition, an all-Russian event, was held in Nizhny Novgorod in 1896. Articles from the textile, metalworking, machine-building, and chemical industries were among the products exhibited. Most of the articles came from the central provinces, and 60 percent of the exhibitors were factory owners. Russia also participated in world industrial exhibitions.
In the USSR an industrial exhibit was organized in Moscow in 1923. In 1956 the All-Union Industrial Exhibition was opened at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition ground in Moscow; in 1958 it became part of the Exhibition of the Achievements of the National Economy of the USSR.
The USSR takes part in international industrial exhibitions.