petroleum oils used in industry and homes for the lubrication of machinery (machines, instruments, and so on). Baku, Emba, and eastern types of crude oil are used in their production. Industrial oils sometimes contain vegetable oils (for example, castor, mustard, or rapeseed) as additives, as well as antioxidizing, thickening, and anticorrosive dopes for improving their service qualities. The range of industrial oils is constantly being varied and supplemented with new brands, particularly synthetic oils (for example, silicon, polyester, and fluorohydrocarbon).
Industrial oils are subdivided according to viscosity into light, medium, and heavy types. Light oils, with viscosity of 5–10 centistokes (1 centistoke = 10−6 m2/sec) at 50°C and pour points as low as –25°C, are used for lubricating high-speed, low-load machinery. This group includes L (velosite) oil and T (petrolatum) oil, which are used for lubrication of spinning and doubling frames in the textile industry, for spindles of metal-working lathes and low-power high-speed motors; separator oil L, for lubrication of light-duty separators; sewing oil for sewing, binding, and knitting machines; and instrument oil MVP (pour point –60°C), for lubricating monitoring and measuring instrumentation. Medium industrial oils, with viscosity of 10–50 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as— 30°C, are used to lubricate machinery operating at medium speeds and under medium loads. This group includes spindle and machine lubricating oils, separator oil T, and telegraphic oil. These oils are used in many sectors of industry (light industry, metalworking, and so on), primarily for lubricating bearings in low-power electric motors and in hydraulic systems of metalworking machines. Heavy industrial oils, with viscosity of 10–30 centistokes at 100°C and relatively high pour points, are used for lubricating industrial equipment operating at low speeds and under heavy loads—for example, forge and press equipment and worm and tooth gearing.
In addition to the three groups mentioned above, industrial oils also include instrument oils, with relatively high viscosity (10–20 centistokes at 50°C) and low pour points (down to— 70°C) for lubricating testing and measuring apparatus; watch oils, with viscosity of 20–30 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as— 20°C; turbine oils, with viscosity of 20–50 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as –15°C and having good antioxidizing and demulsifying ability, for lubricating bearings and accessory parts in water and steam turbines with lubrication by oil circulation; and compressor oils, which are characterized by high stability, a high flash point (210°–270°C), and high viscosity (10–20 centistokes at 100°C), for lubricating reciprocating and rotary compressors and blowers. The last group includes refrigerator oils for lubricating compressors in refrigerating machines: KhA (frigus), for ammonia and carbon-dioxide compressors and KhF-12 (pour point –40°C) and KhF-22 (pour point –60°C), for Freon compressors.
Hydraulic oils are a special group of industrial oils; they are used as working fluids in various hydraulic systems, such as the braking systems of motor vehicles, and in the hydraulic drives of machine tools, and they all have low pour points (down to –70°C), a high grade of purity, and oxidation stability.
|*At 26 atmospheres ( – 2.6 meganewtons/m2)|
|†Mass number of longest-lived isotope|
|Element||Atomic mass||Content in air (volume percent)||Atomic radii (angstroms)||First ionization potential (volts)||At 1 atmosphere (−100 kilonewtons/m2)|
|He||4.0026||4.6 · 104||1.40||0.291||24.58||−272.6*||−268.93|
|Ne||20.179||1.61 · 103||1.54||0.350||21.56||−248.6||−245.9|
|Xe||131.30||8 · 106||2.16||0.986||12.13||−111.8||−108.1|
|Rn||222†||6 · 1018||−||1.096||10.75||−7l††||−63††|
Among these are oils used as working fluids in backing and high-vacuum vapor-jet pumps.
REFERENCESTekhnicheskiie usloviia na nefteprodukty. Moscow, 1969.
Nefteprodukty: Svoistva, kachestvo, primenenie. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.
V. V. SHCHEKIN