Industrial Oils

Industrial Oils

 

petroleum oils used in industry and homes for the lubrication of machinery (machines, instruments, and so on). Baku, Emba, and eastern types of crude oil are used in their production. Industrial oils sometimes contain vegetable oils (for example, castor, mustard, or rapeseed) as additives, as well as antioxidizing, thickening, and anticorrosive dopes for improving their service qualities. The range of industrial oils is constantly being varied and supplemented with new brands, particularly synthetic oils (for example, silicon, polyester, and fluorohydrocarbon).

Industrial oils are subdivided according to viscosity into light, medium, and heavy types. Light oils, with viscosity of 5–10 centistokes (1 centistoke = 10−6 m2/sec) at 50°C and pour points as low as –25°C, are used for lubricating high-speed, low-load machinery. This group includes L (velosite) oil and T (petrolatum) oil, which are used for lubrication of spinning and doubling frames in the textile industry, for spindles of metal-working lathes and low-power high-speed motors; separator oil L, for lubrication of light-duty separators; sewing oil for sewing, binding, and knitting machines; and instrument oil MVP (pour point –60°C), for lubricating monitoring and measuring instrumentation. Medium industrial oils, with viscosity of 10–50 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as— 30°C, are used to lubricate machinery operating at medium speeds and under medium loads. This group includes spindle and machine lubricating oils, separator oil T, and telegraphic oil. These oils are used in many sectors of industry (light industry, metalworking, and so on), primarily for lubricating bearings in low-power electric motors and in hydraulic systems of metalworking machines. Heavy industrial oils, with viscosity of 10–30 centistokes at 100°C and relatively high pour points, are used for lubricating industrial equipment operating at low speeds and under heavy loads—for example, forge and press equipment and worm and tooth gearing.

In addition to the three groups mentioned above, industrial oils also include instrument oils, with relatively high viscosity (10–20 centistokes at 50°C) and low pour points (down to— 70°C) for lubricating testing and measuring apparatus; watch oils, with viscosity of 20–30 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as— 20°C; turbine oils, with viscosity of 20–50 centistokes at 50°C and pour points as low as –15°C and having good antioxidizing and demulsifying ability, for lubricating bearings and accessory parts in water and steam turbines with lubrication by oil circulation; and compressor oils, which are characterized by high stability, a high flash point (210°–270°C), and high viscosity (10–20 centistokes at 100°C), for lubricating reciprocating and rotary compressors and blowers. The last group includes refrigerator oils for lubricating compressors in refrigerating machines: KhA (frigus), for ammonia and carbon-dioxide compressors and KhF-12 (pour point –40°C) and KhF-22 (pour point –60°C), for Freon compressors.

Hydraulic oils are a special group of industrial oils; they are used as working fluids in various hydraulic systems, such as the braking systems of motor vehicles, and in the hydraulic drives of machine tools, and they all have low pour points (down to –70°C), a high grade of purity, and oxidation stability.

Table 1
*At 26 atmospheres ( – 2.6 meganewtons/m2)
Mass number of longest-lived isotope
††Approximately
ElementAtomic massContent in air (volume percent)Atomic radii (angstroms)First ionization potential (volts)At 1 atmosphere (−100 kilonewtons/m2)
He 4.0026 4.6 · 1041.40 0.291 24.58 −272.6*−268.93
Ne 20.179 1.61 · 1031.54 0.350 21.56 −248.6 −245.9
Ar 39.948 0.9325 1.88 0.690 15.76 -189.3 -185.9
Kr 83.80 *1.08· 1042.02 0.795 14.00 −157.1 −153.2
Xe 131.30 8 · 1062.16 0.986 12.13 −111.8 −108.1
Rn 2226 · 10181.096 10.75 −7l††−63††

Among these are oils used as working fluids in backing and high-vacuum vapor-jet pumps.

REFERENCES

Tekhnicheskiie usloviia na nefteprodukty. Moscow, 1969.
Nefteprodukty: Svoistva, kachestvo, primenenie. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.

V. V. SHCHEKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The company offers gasoline, diesel oils, gear oils, motorcycle engine oils, coolants, brake fluids, hydraulic oils, industrial gear oils, greases, refrigerant oils, natural gas oils, and industrial oils under the ZIC brand.
Continuing to emphasise its leadership in the Egyptian market as the largest supplier of industrial oils for the eleventh year in a row, Shell Egypt renewed its partnership for the second time with Sukari Gold Mining Company, after the partnership started in 2014, making Shell the exclusive supplier of oil to Sukari projects.
Every year it is reported that over 100 million gallons of costly fluids such as diesel, hydraulic and other industrial oils are wasted through leakage.
The Uz-EcoProtect JV was created with an authorised capital of $1m to collect, store and transport used industrial oils.
The project will help the Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) and the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) to make the right decisions for investment in this technology going forward, and to obtain light industrial oils and high-value products, she said.
It is very costly to produce industrial oils from petroleum sources.
Similarly, industrial oils also prefer using Group II base oils rather than Group I base oils.
Supply of industrial oils for the Authority's locomotives and vehicles.
These new filter carts can remove four types of contaminants from industrial oils.
The company is a producer of liquid oils, margarines, industrial oils and pastry oils.
facility found that tanks used to store hydraulic and other industrial oils were set on a gravel and clay surface, but state environmental regulations require the tanks to be placed on a concrete surface as part of a spill containment system, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported.

Full browser ?