any one of various chemical compounds that are used in industry and have a harmful effect on the human body. Various types of raw materials, as well as the intermediate products, by-products, and end products of industrial production, can be poisonous when the procedures for accident prevention and good work hygiene are not observed; chronic poisoning is the most common result. Some industrial poisons can damage the fetus and have a harmful effect on progeny; some are carcinogenic.
Various measures can be undertaken to prevent poisoning by industrial poisons. They include the replacement of highly toxic industrial poisons in the production process by less toxic poisons; the establishment of continuity of the production process and airtightness of the equipment and communications; a reasonable layout of work areas, with the establishment of “clean” and “unclean” zones; the provision of effective ventilation; the reduction of contact time with industrial poisons; the use of individual means of protection, such as clothing, antigases, respirators, protective pastes; regular medical examinations; prophylactic nutrition; preventive administration of medicines; and the determination of maximum permissible concentrations of noxious gases, vapors, and aerosols in the work area. (See alsoPOISONING; OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE; and OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD.)
REFERENCESVoprosy gigienicheskogo normirovaniia pri izuchenii otdalennykh posledstvii vozdeistviia promyshlennykh veshchestv. Moscow, 1972.
Sanotskii, I. V., and I. P. Ulanova. Kriterii vrednosti v gigiene i toksikologii pri otsenke opasnosti khimicheskikh soedinenii. Moscow, 1975.
I. V. SANOTSKII