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Localized death of tissue that is caused by obstructed inflow of arterial blood. Also known as infarction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a focus of organ or tissue necrosis resulting from an interruption of the blood supply to the area. The direct causes of infarcts are thrombosis, embolism, or spasm of the arteries feeding this tissue. Hypoxia is a decisive factor in the development of the tissue changes associated with an infarct.

There are three types: white, or ischemic, infarct, which is a zone of necrosis lacking in blood; red, or hemorrhagic, infarct, in which the zone of necrosis is saturated with excessive blood; and ischemic infarct with a hemorrhagic zone. The first and third types of infarct are generally formed in the heart, kidneys, and spleen, and the second in the lungs and intestine. An infarct may be conical (kidney, lungs) or irregular (heart, brain) in shape. Its consistency varies with the nature of the necrosis, which may be dry (myocardial infarct) or moist (cerebral infarct).

Infarcts cause profound changes in the organs affected. The dead areas are resorbed or organized, resulting in the formation of a cyst (in the brain) or a scar (in the heart muscle), or they may suppurate and liquefy (septic infarct). The size, location, and properties of an infarct determine whether the affected organ becomes weakened or loses its functions.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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In the ipsilateral hemisphere, [Iba-1.sup.+] microglia of both activated and resting forms were detected, but the resting phenotype existed in the infarct core cortex and intact striatum, whereas the active form was only found in the infarct core cortex.
Interestingly, of the few case reports, unilateral thalamic infarct has been reported more frequently on the left side, although an underlying anatomic basis has not been proposed.
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White matter lesions were scored using Fazekas scale (total score range: 0–6).[sup][19] The location and the numbers of small infarcts were recorded.[sup][20],[21] The total number of CMBs was counted according to the Microbleed Anatomical Rating Scale.[sup][22],[23] All MRI of good quality were included for rating of brain lesions.
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Despite the differences in study design, numbers of MRI, and included patients, our results go in line with the findings of the CRYSTAL-AF substudy and cast doubt of the clinical value of infarct topography in cryptogenic stroke and ESUS.
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