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(self-designation, Galgai), a people who live in the western regions of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, in the foothills and lowland regions, and also in the gorges of the central part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range. Population, 158,000 (1970 census). They speak Ingush. Religious Ingush are Sunnite Muslims.
The Ingush and Chechens, who are closely related in both language and culture, are the native population of Chechen-Ingushetia. The oldest Ingush settlements were located in the mountains, where the Ingush lived in separate tribal groups (communities). The Dzherakh, Feppi (Kisty), Galgai (hence the self-designation of the Ingush), Tsori, and Metskal communities are known. The migration of the Ingush from the mountains to the lowlands began in the 16th and 17th centuries and was particularly intense from the 1830’s to the 1860’s. One of the first Ingush settlements in the lowland was the village of Angush, or Ingush (on the site of the present-day village of Tarskoe in the Tarskoe valley). The general name for the Ingush people came from the village name Angush (Ingush).
The chief occupations of the Ingush are farming (mainly on the plains), cattle raising (primarily in the mountains), and horticulture. Many Ingush are employed in industry. The cultural life of the Ingush underwent radical changes during the years of Soviet power. Illiteracy was eliminated, a national intelligentsia came into being, and theater and literature developed.
In late 1943 and early 1944, because of violation of socialist law, the Ingush were resettled in various regions of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. On Jan. 9, 1957, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a decree on the restoration of national autonomy of the Ingush people; the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored. The distortions of the Leninist principles of national policy that had been allowed were eliminated. Almost all of the Ingush returned to their native areas, where the conditions were re-created for their overall development.
REFERENCESNarody Kavkaza, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 375–90. (Bibliography, pp. 570–71.)
Zasedaniia Verkhomogo Soveta SSSR chetvertogo sozyva: Shestaia sessiia(5–12 fevralia 1957). Stenographic record. Moscow, 1957. Pages 576–77, 743–44.
the language of the Ingush, who live mainly in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR. Ingush belongs to the Nakh group of the Ibero-Caucasian languages; it is close to Chechen. It is spoken by approximately 158,000 people (1970 census). Literary Ingush is based on the spoken language of the lowland Ingush. Ingush had no written form prior to the October Revolution. The alphabet is based on Russian script.
Ingush is characterized by an abundance of consonants (glottal stops—glottalized, laryngeals, and pharyngeals) and vowels. The grammatical structure of Ingush is characterized by the presence of a category of grammatical classes and an ergative construction and by the absence of conjugation. Six grammatical classes are distinguished. Declension is of the multicase type. Verbs are inflected for tense, mood, aspect, number, and grammatical class. Ingush has many lexical borrowings from Russian and, through Russian, from other languages, as well as from Arabic, Persian, and Turkic languages.
REFERENCESMal’sagov, Z. K. Grammatika ingushskogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Groznyi, 1963.
Dolakova, R. I. “Ingushskii iazyk.” In the collection Iazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 4. Moscow, 1967.
IU. D. DESHERIEV