Recruitment of mRNA in eukaryotes is a multistep process involving initiation, elongation, and termination involving mature mRNA, free 40S ribosomal subunits, and many translation factors, including the eukaryotic translation initiation factors
, eIF4E (in this study termed eIF4E1), eIF4A, and eIF4G (Merrick & Pavitt 2018).
Expression of HCV is predominantly controlled at the translational level, which involves the interaction between cellular translation initiation factors
and a specific mRNA stem-loop structure – the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) – within the 5' untranslated region.[sup] Iron is reported to stimulate the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor
3 (eIF3), thus enhancing HCV IRES-dependent translation both in HepG2 cells and HCV-infected patients, whereas iron chelation reverses it in vitro .[sup] Another group also found that hepatic iron load promotes HCV translation initiation in vitro with the mechanism involving iron-dependent increased expression of eIF3.
In this review, we will first discuss the mechanism of canonical translation initiation, followed by noncanonical mechanisms that utilize RNA sequence features including upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and internal ribosome entry site- (IRES-) mediated translation mechanisms, the role of eukaryotic initiation factors
in noncanonical translation, and their significance in cancer progression.
During transient oxidative stress such as ROS, translation of mRNA is stalled, and the nuclear exported nontranslating mRNPs (mRNA and many translation initiation factors
such as eIF4G/E, Pab1, and Pbp1) form normal SGs in the cytoplasm through sequestration of RNA-binding proteins like primary nucleators (G3BP1/2, TIA-1, and TIAR).
A global inhibition of genes regulating eukaryotic initiation factors
and ribosomal proteins has been observed (Table 3), implying that the overall protein synthesis was reduced due to sustained CPT-triggered UPR.
Plaque control measures are essential components of periodontal therapy.3,4 Many studies showed that effective plaque control for each person cannot be achieved without interactive motivation that includes educational and informative knowledge for the patients about periodontal diseases, their initiation factors
, and the major role of dental plaque as the initiating cause for inflammatory periodontal changes.3,5 Many researchers have stressed on patient's awareness for prevention of periodontal diseases.
UC Davis assistant Professor Christopher Fraser said that this protein is one the most important initiation factors
in this cellular pathway, and there is a lot of energy in the cell that goes into regulating the level and availability of it.
Eukaryotic initiation factors
and protein synthesis after resistance exercise in rats.
Regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells occurs primarily at the initiation step of mRNA translation, during which ribosomal subunits are recruited to the mRNA through the action of eukaryotic initiation factors
Small-molecule inhibition of the interaction between the translation initiation factors
eIF4E and eIF4G.
Modulation of ribosomal recruitment to 5'-terminal start codons by translation initiation factors
IF2 and IF3.