(Institute of Artistic Culture, 1920–24), an artistic organization, a creative society of painters, graphic artists, sculptors, architects, and art scholars. The institute was organized in Moscow in March 1920 as a section of the Department of Fine Arts (IZO) of the People’s Commissariat for Education (Nar-kompros). Inkhuk had its own regulations and program.
Inkhuk repeatedly changed its general orientation, organizational structure, membership, and leadership. It maintained close ties with a number of other creative, educational, and research organizations, such as the State Higher Arts and Technical Studios (Vkhutemas) and the Left Front of the Arts (Lef). Inkhuk was a discussion club and theoretical center.
The program of Inkhuk was initially influenced by the leftist trends in art (for example, abstract art). In accordance with W. Kandinsky’s program of 1920, artists affiliated with Inkhuk studied the formal devices in various types of art (for example, music, painting, and sculpture) and the uniqueness of their influence upon the viewer. In 1921 a split occurred between the supporters of this formalist program and those artists who strove to apply the results of their artistic experiments to daily practical activities. In the same year, the Lef program was developed in Inkhuk, and attention was focused upon finding a theoretical solution to the problems of constructivism and production art. Under the auspices of Inkhuk, experimental work in artistic design was conducted, and educational programs were organized at Vkhutemas.
During their affiliation with Inkhuk the leaders of the two most important schools of Soviet architecture in the 1920’s, N. A. Ladovskii and A. A. Vesnin, developed their views on art. In addition, the first working groups were organized in Inkhuk, which later became the Association of New Architects (Asnova) and the Organization of Contemporary Architects (OSA). Among the artists active in Inkhuk were B. I. Arvatov, A. V. Babichev, O. M. Brik, L. M. Lisitskii, L. S. Popova, A. M. Rod-chenko, and V. F. Stepanova.
During the years of Inkhuk’s existence, an institute similar in character was organized in Leningrad. It was known as the State Institute of Artistic Culture (Ginkhuk, 1923–27).
REFERENCES“Programma Inkhuka.” In Sovetskoe iskusstvo za 15 let. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933. Pages 126–39.
Russkoe iskusstvo, 1923, nos. 2–3.
Iz istorii sovetskoi esteticheskoi mysli. Moscow, 1967. Pages 42–43, 45–58, and 509–12 (bibliography).
S. O. KHAN-MACOMEDOV