Vygotsky's development of the concept of inner speech
roughly coincides--and profoundly resonates--with Joyce's stylistic innovations aimed at achieving a new realism in the representation of human consciousness.
The phenomenon of inner speech
has vexed philosophers and psychologists since the nineteenth century.
Chapter 9 provides many more examples from the authors' work with voice-hearers and argues that the conceptualization of voices as inner speech
needs to be refined and their contents and dialogical properties explored as 'matters of language' (p.
"States of mind" is my label for those areas of characters' minds that are not inner speech
. It covers episodes of current consciousness that are not inner speech
, such as "he felt depressed." Examples include such mental phenomena as mood, desires, emotions, sensations, visual images, attention, and memory.
The research team developed an objective method for measuring the purely mental action of inner speech
. Specifically, their study in 42 healthy participants assessed the degree to which imagined sounds interfered with the brain activity elicited by actual sounds, using electroencephalography (EEG).
This suggests that, unlike neurotypical adults, participants with autism do not normally use inner speech
to help themselves plan.
However, the researchers suggest teaching and intervention strategies for children targeted at encouraging inner speech
may make a difference.
Learners acquire language through co-operative activity (as in task-based learning), directed interactive behavior (as in 'scaffolding'), and internalisation of speech patterns ('inner speech
') (Mitchell & Myles 1998).
This more recent tradition has analyzed the neurobiological bases of the three cited forms of private speech, from which inner speech
has been the one most studied.
Eisenstein's adoption of 'inner speech
' as a strategy for the film Moscow enabled him to foreground 'fire' without giving fire a necessary logical referent or consistent meaning.
"These findings suggest that the areas involved in monitoring and assessing inner speech
are not functioning properly in patients with schizophrenia," he said.
These were the notion of inner speech
, the concept of the zone of proximal development, and the idea of cultural tools.