Innocent VI,d. 1362, pope (1352–62), a Frenchman named Étienne Aubert; successor of Clement VIClement VI,
1291–1352, pope (1342–52), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger; successor of Benedict XII. His court was at Avignon. He had been archbishop of Sens, archbishop of Rouen, and cardinal (1338).
..... Click the link for more information. . He was a well-known jurist and was created cardinal in 1342. He lived at Avignon. He was one of the few reforming popes of his age, doing his best to eliminate venality from church administration. His major quarrel was with Holy Roman Emperor Charles IVCharles IV,
1316–78, Holy Roman emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and king of Bohemia (1346–78). The son of John of Luxemburg, Charles was educated at the French court and fought the English at Crécy, where his father's heroic death made
..... Click the link for more information. over the Golden BullGolden Bull,
term translated from the Latin bulla aurea and generally referring to a bull (edict) with a golden seal. Golden bulls were promulgated by medieval Byzantine rulers and by Western European monarchs, for example, by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (Golden Bull
..... Click the link for more information. . Innocent sent Cardinal de AlbornozAlbornoz, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de
, 1310?–1367, Spanish and papal statesman and general, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Under Alfonso XI of Castile he became archbishop of Toledo and distinguished himself fighting the Moors at Tarifa and Algeciras.
..... Click the link for more information. into Italy to pacify the Papal States and liberated Cola di RienziRienzi or Rienzo, Cola di
, 1313?–1354, Roman popular leader. In 1343 on a mission to Pope Clement VI at Avignon, he won the papal confidence. While there he befriended Petrarch.
..... Click the link for more information. to go with him. He was succeeded by Urban VUrban V,
1310–70, pope (1362–70), a Provençal named Guillaume de Grimoard; successor of Innocent VI. He was a Benedictine renowned for his knowledge of canon law.
..... Click the link for more information. .
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