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A substance which augments a melt, usually in the latter part of the melting operation, thus altering the solidification structure of the cast metal, as in grain refinement of aluminum alloys.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a substance added to a metal or alloy in small quantities, causing a significant change in its structure and properties. The effect of such treatment is called inoculation.

According to the classification of P. A. Rebinder, inoculants are divided into two groups. The first group includes surface-active substances, which are adsorbed on the nuclei that form on crystallization centers and retard their growth, resulting in the appearance of a large number of new nuclei, whose growth becomes possible as the concentration of the inoculant on their surfaces decreases.

Inoculants of the second type facilitate the formation of crystallization centers, such as colloidal particles, which affect the nucleation of crystals of the metallic phase during hardening. Upon the appearance of a large number of such centers, there is increased formation of fine granules of the principal phase or fine inclusions of other phases. Phases that otherwise would not be formed in the material sometimes crystallize on such centers.

Inoculants of both groups disintegrate granules (inclusions), but inoculants of the first group enhance the supercooling of melts during crystallization, and those of the second group reduce supercooling.


Rebinder, P. A., and M. S. Lipman. “Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy modifikatsii metallov i splavov malymi poverkhnostno aktivnymi primesiami.” In Issledovaniia v oblasti prikladnoi fiziko-khimii poverkhnostnykh iavlenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1936.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, it was not affected (p>0.05) by inoculant. The temperatures of PI silage applied LP inoculant were highest (p< 0.05) at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20, and 30 h of aerobic exposure compared to the other silages.
The analysis of variance revealed interaction between the use of inoculant x molybdenum doses for the variables of nitrate reductase enzyme activity obtained in the vegetative stage (V3), and the nitrate reductase enzyme activity obtained in the reproductive stage (R5) of plants originated from seeds treated with different molybdenum doses with presence and absence of inoculant, at 5% probability; however, for the variables: plant height, thousand-seed weight, shoot dry mass and root dry mass, there was no significant variation.
Oluoch notes that the inoculants need to be kept cool and dry before use to keep the bacteria active."One key thing to note when using a liquid inoculant is to avoid diluting the product with chlorinated water as the chlorine can kill the lactic acid bacteria if it is too high.
There are various reports indicating that LAB inoculant did not effect ruminal DM and OM degrabilities or digestibility of silages (Arriola et al.
Plants receiving microbial inoculants containing Azotobacter chroococcum + Bacillus megaterium + Glomus fasciculatum + 75%NP + 100%K + Vermicompost recorded highest number of branches/plant (15.37), number of leaves/plant (50.03) and leaf area (73.82cm).
Effect of microbial inoculant on composition, aerobic stability, in situ ruminal degradability and in vitro gas production of corn silage.
Factors such as desiccation, temperature, and seed coat toxicity, for instance, have been implicated in poor inoculant survival on seeds and failure of nodulation and [N.sub.2] fixation [7].
Azriell, "The effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant applied at ensiling, with or without lactic acid bacteria, on the aerobic stability of pearl millet and maize silages," Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol.
Leaf N contents and the number of panicles [m.sup.-2] were not influenced by the treatments of doses and forms of application of inoculant, in both seasons.
The diversity of rhizobia nodulating chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) under water deficiency as a source of more efficient inoculants. Soil Biol Biochem., 41: 2568-2572