venom

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Related to Insect venom: Bee venom

venom

or

zootoxin,

any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct. Snake venom is a complex substance, containing various enzymes and toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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. Venoms differ in their effect according to the preponderance in them of hemotoxic, hemolytic, or neurotoxic agents. Hemotoxins perforate the blood vessels, causing hemorrhage, and hemolysins dissolve the red blood cells. The venom of the fer-de-lance is chiefly hemotoxic; that of the rattlesnake, the copperhead, and the moccasin is both hemotoxic and hemolytic. Neurotoxins produce paralysis, often of the nerve centers that control breathing, thus causing a quicker death from suffocation. Cobras, coral snakes, scorpions, and spiders produce neurotoxic venoms. The venom of the gaboon viper is both hemotoxic and neurotoxic. Venoms may also contain agglutinins, which promote coagulation of blood, or anticoagulants, which have the opposite effect. The venoms of various snakes have been used medicinally, according to their specific properties, as painkillers (in arthritis, cancer, and leprosy), antispasmodics (in epilepsy and asthma), and blood coagulants (in hemophilia). The venom of the Russell's viper has been used as a coagulant in tonsillectomies and for bleeding gums. The effect of any snakebitesnakebite,
wound inflicted by the teeth of a snake. The bite of a nonvenomous snake is rarely serious. Venomous snakes have fangs, hollow teeth through which poison is injected into a victim.
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 necessarily depends on the quantity and kind of toxin it contains, as well as on the resistance of the victim. Immune serum against snake venom, or antivenin, can be prepared by repeatedly injecting sublethal doses of venom into an animal such as the horse. The immune serum thereby produced in the animal can be extracted and used to treat snakebite victims. Poisons are produced by animal species of every phylum; examples include the poison in the rounded warts of the skin of toads, the venoms of spiders, scorpions, bees, and other arthropods, and the poison of jellyfish and other coelenterates. See also toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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.

Venom

(pop culture)
In many ways, Venom is the quintessential supervillain of comics' “grim and gritty” era of the 1980s. His grotesque appearance and violent character—a stronger, darker, more driven version Spider-Man—is an amped-up take on the darker view of superheroes that emerged in the wake of Watchmen and Dark Knight. And yet as bad as he is, Eddie (Venom) Brock is a wildly popular character who has teamed with many heroes and starred in his own series from time to time. Cunning and powerful, Venom sees himself as a hero who is trying to protect the innocent—he's even been known to champion the homeless of San Francisco. It's this duality—brute force and moral awareness, however twisted—that has given him a place in Spidey's all-time rogues' gallery. Venom's origin also plays to the strengths of Marvel Comics' convoluted continuity, going back four years before his first appearance. His story has two beginnings. One is that of Eddie Brock, an ambitious reporter for the Daily Bugle who was fired in a scandal after his big story—the identity of a villain named Sin-Eater—turned out to be wrong. He blamed his downfall on Peter Parker, aka Spider-Man. Meanwhile, Spider-Man had gone off to the interdimensional Secret War and returned with a new black costume, in Marvel Super Heroes Secret Wars #8 (1984). The costume turned out to be a powerful and evil alien symbiote, and after removing it, Spider-Man abandoned it. The symbiote also sought vengeance against Spider-Man, and was drawn to Brock, who was about to kill himself. The demented duo then bonded in a quest to see Spider- Man dead. Venom first appeared as the Brock/Symbiote character in The Amazing Spider-Man vol. 1 #298 (1988), by writer David Michelinie and artist Todd McFarlane, but his origin wasn't revealed until issue #300, in which he and Spidey had the first of many battles. Venom quickly caught on as a fan favorite, getting numerous return appearances and his own miniseries (the first of many) in 1993. Perhaps the best-known Venom story is 1993's “Maximum Carnage,” a fourteen-issue crossover epic in which Venom and Spider-Man teamed up to defeat Carnage, an even more savage version of Venom. In recent years, the symbiote has abandoned Brock as his host, and has been given to inhabiting many different people to suit its purposes, including a woman and a crime boss. Mac Gargan, better known as Spidey's foe the Scorpion, united with the Venom symbiote to become the new Venom in a 2005 Marvel Knights: Spider-Man story arc. Venom's original creative team is the subject of some confusion. Michelinie came up with the idea for the villain, and had planted several clues in issues preceding the character's debut in #298. It was McFarlane, however, who gave Venom his signature look of a gaping maw, a bank of razor-sharp teeth, and a long, serpentine tongue, extrapolating from Secret Wars artist Mike Zeck's original design for Spider-Man's black costume. An alternate version of the character, Ultimate Venom, has appeared in the Brian Michael Bendis–penned pages of Ultimate Spider-Man (2000–present). At the hands of artist Mark Bagley, Ultimate Venom became even more garish and long-tongued than in days past. Given his popularity, it's no surprise that Venom has appeared in almost every media, including the FOX Kids Spider-Man cartoon (1994–1998), voiced by Hank Azaria and collected as the DVD The Venom Saga, and numerous role-playing games and video games, including Venom-Spider-Man: Separation Anxiety. He also makes a terrific action figure (particularly the early 1990s “Talking Venom” from Toy Biz, which gave mothers nightmares by saying, “I want to eat your brains”). But Venom will perhaps achieve his greatest notoriety in the Sam Raimi–directed Spider-Man 3, with That '70s Show actor Topher Grace in the role.

venom

[′ven·əm]
(physiology)
Any of various poisonous materials secreted by certain animals, such as snakes or bees.

venom

a poisonous fluid secreted by such animals as certain snakes and scorpions and usually transmitted by a bite or sting
References in periodicals archive ?
The main goal of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of sIgE values obtained by IML to objective, well-established in vivo and laboratory methods for identifying sensitization to a representative spectrum of specific aeroallergens and insect venom allergens for patients typical of those encountered by our laboratory on a daily basis.
However, when the person is re-stung, the insect venom enters the body and combines with the IgE antibody that was produced in response to the earlier sting and triggers internal reactions causing severe allergic symptoms.
Large skin-test studies with insect venom suggest that 15 percent of the population may be predisposed.
Since avoiding attacks cannot be guaranteed, allergic individuals should also protect themselves through a program of long-term management of their body's tolerance to insect venom.
However, one member of the teamnotes, fire ant venom contains little protein compared with some other insect venoms, and further studies would have to be performed to see if the tenderizer is effective against wasp or bee stings.
He said the different types of substances producing allergy are pollen grains of flowers, dust particles, house dust mite, outdoor and indoor molds or fungus, insect venom of bee, animal dander like sloughed off skin, saliva and excreta of dog or cat secretions and excretions of birds, body parts and excreta of insects like cockroach, foods like milk, egg, fish, prawns, beef, mutton, chicken, peanuts, and some drugs like penicillin, sulfa drugs and insulin.
Neither parents nor the school authorities are aware that the child has developed sensitivity to insect venom.
Not only the insect venom itself, but also the place on the human victim's body where it is injected can determine how serious the sting may be.
Neither parents nor teachers are aware that the child has developed sensitivity to insect venom.
He has studied and published extensively on allergic reactions to drugs such as insulin and penicillin, insect venom, foods such as grapes, and most recently, natural rubber latex.
org/news/insect-venom-shortage-stings-allergy-sufferers-this-summer/) shortages of the insect venoms , partly due to contamination issues, and doctors might have to limit their treatment only to patients who need it the most.
For example, as a general rule I order IgE protein-specific tests for the five common flying insect venoms, because most children cannot tell if a wasp, hornet, or bee stung them.