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abnormal wakefulness or inability to sleepsleep,
resting state in which an individual becomes relatively quiescent and relatively unaware of the environment. During sleep, which is in part a period of rest and relaxation, most physiological functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and rate of breathing and
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. The condition may result from illness or physical discomfort, or it may be caused by stimulants such as coffee or drugs. However, frequently some psychological factor, such as worry or tension, is the cause. Mild insomnia may often be relieved by a soothing activity like reading or listening to soft music. Chronic or severe insomnia requires treatment of the underlying physical or psychological disorder. In a few, very rare cases, individuals in certain families are subject to an incurable inherited insomia caused by prions that form plaques in the thalamusthalamus
, mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers.
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; the disease appears suddenly in adulthood and ultimately is fatal.

Many patients respond to the assurance that their sleeplessness is a result of normal anxieties or a treatable physical disorder. Opportunities to ventilate anxieties often ease distress and helps resume normal sleeping patterns. Elderly persons are encourage to exercise more during the day; instructed relaxation, administration of tryptophan, and intake of warm milk helps some patients sleep. Sedatives and hypnotics drugs may be employed if the sleeplessness is impairing the subject's sense of well being. Those who wake because of pain receive an analgesic at bedtime; for those who experience insomnia accompanied with depression, an antidepressant often suffices.



(also agrypnia), disturbed sleep. Insomnia manifests itself as a shortening of the period of nocturnal sleep, delay in onset of sleep, early awakening, and repeated interruption of sleep during the night. Sleep is also impaired qualitatively; it becomes more superficial, the length of deep sleep is diminished, and the balance between dream-sleep and dreamless sleep is upset. Insomnia occurs in cases of neurosis, certain cardiovascular and psychological illnesses, neuro infections, and injury to those parts of the brain that regulate the correct alternation of sleep and wakefulness. In healthy people, it may occur after great physical or mental stress, fatigue, strong emotional experiences, and similar instances. The total absence of nocturnal or daytime sleep for long durations almost never occurs.

Treatment involves adherence to the correct regimen of work and rest, the elimination of irritating factors, bathing, and exercise. The patient may be prescribed tranquilizers and, in cases of persistent insomnia, soporifics. In cases of insomnia caused by illness, treatment consists in eliminating the original illness responsible for the insomnia.


Pervov, L. G. Son i ego narushenie, Moscow, 1965.
Fedotov, D. D. Son i ego rasstroistvo. Moscow, 1966.



Sleeplessness; disturbed sleep; prolonged inability to sleep.


The inability to sleep. If you suffer from it, the solution is to look up all the terms under "standards" in this encyclopedia. Dozing should occur shortly. If that does not work... well, at least you will become the computer guru on your block!
References in periodicals archive ?
Regestein QR: Treatment of insomnia in the elderly.
Wagner J, Wagner ML, Hening W: Beyond benzodiazepines: alternative pharmacological agents for the treatment of insomnia.
Keck PE: Insomnia in anxiety and depression: differential diagnosis and treatment options.
Guilleminault C, Clerk A, Black J, et al: Nondrug treatment trials in psychophysiologic insomnia.
Any secondary causes of insomnia should be investigated and treated before a diagnosis of primary insomnia is made.
Zolpidem, zaleplon or ramelteon should be considered for patients primarily suffering from sleep-onset insomnia.
Abstract: Chronic insomnia is a common disorder that is under recognized, under diagnosed and under treated.
Chronic insomnia affects about 10 to 15% of the US adult population.
Insomnia is a sleep disorder that may occur acutely and dissipate or may become a vexing chronic disorder.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD) (1) diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia requires: (i) a predominant complaint of difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep, for at least 1 month; (ii) that the sleep disturbance (or associated daytime fatigue) causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning; (iii) that the sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of another sleep disorder (e.
Nor is there a standard for number of nights per week (or per month) that disturbed sleep must occur to meet insomnia criteria.
Among the most widely used are the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (4), which provides a global assessment of sleep, and the Insomnia Severity Index (5), specifically designed for insomnia.