If is the time delay between the transmitted and received signal of the same target is [tau], then the

instantaneous phase of received signal is

After the data has been decomposed into IMFs, the second step is to apply the Hilbert transform to each IMF, which produces

instantaneous phase (frequencies) as functions of time.

Instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency can be determined by (Eq.

E](t) is the

instantaneous phase of the signal E(t).

Features used in this paper are Standard deviation of absolute value of the centered non-linear components of

instantaneous phase ( ) Standard deviation of direct value of the centered non-linear components of

instantaneous phase ( Standard deviation of absolute value of the normalized centered instantaneous amplitude (

The aim of this study is to present a PAT estimation method which is based on

instantaneous phase shift estimation between extracted fundamental frequency components from multimodal cardiac signals (ECG and PPG) and to compare this method with a classical PAT estimation method based on PPG signal derivative maximum [10].

On the other hand, employing of a mixture of solvents in the casting solution can remove large pore formation during

instantaneous phase separation and can convert finger like to sponge like pores [16].

Acoustic impedance, dominant frequency, amplitude weighted phase and

instantaneous phase attributes are used as optimal attributes for the estimation of hydraulic flow units.

Instead of creating phase delays as light propagates through the thickness of the material, you can create an

instantaneous phase shift right at the surface of the lens.

When an arbitrarily given signal x(t) and its Hilbert transform y(t) combine to form an analytic signal z(t), the instantaneous amplitude and the

instantaneous phase can be obtained.

The

instantaneous phase [PHI](n) = [theta](n) + [[PHI].

The continuous variation of the distance between radar and target leads the

instantaneous phase shift to a continuous function of time.