If is the time delay between the transmitted and received signal of the same target is [tau], then the instantaneous phase
of received signal is
After the data has been decomposed into IMFs, the second step is to apply the Hilbert transform to each IMF, which produces instantaneous phase
(frequencies) as functions of time.
and instantaneous frequency can be determined by (Eq.
E](t) is the instantaneous phase
of the signal E(t).
Features used in this paper are Standard deviation of absolute value of the centered non-linear components of instantaneous phase
( ) Standard deviation of direct value of the centered non-linear components of instantaneous phase
( Standard deviation of absolute value of the normalized centered instantaneous amplitude (
The aim of this study is to present a PAT estimation method which is based on instantaneous phase
shift estimation between extracted fundamental frequency components from multimodal cardiac signals (ECG and PPG) and to compare this method with a classical PAT estimation method based on PPG signal derivative maximum .
On the other hand, employing of a mixture of solvents in the casting solution can remove large pore formation during instantaneous phase
separation and can convert finger like to sponge like pores .
Acoustic impedance, dominant frequency, amplitude weighted phase and instantaneous phase
attributes are used as optimal attributes for the estimation of hydraulic flow units.
Instead of creating phase delays as light propagates through the thickness of the material, you can create an instantaneous phase
shift right at the surface of the lens.
When an arbitrarily given signal x(t) and its Hilbert transform y(t) combine to form an analytic signal z(t), the instantaneous amplitude and the instantaneous phase
can be obtained.
The instantaneous phase
[PHI](n) = [theta](n) + [[PHI].
The continuous variation of the distance between radar and target leads the instantaneous phase
shift to a continuous function of time.