Institutional Revolutionary party
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Institutional Revolutionary party,Span. Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), Mexican political party. Established in 1929 as the National Revolutionary party by former President Plutarco CallesCalles, Plutarco Elías
, 1877–1945, Mexican statesman, president (1924–28). In 1913 he left schoolteaching to fight with Álvaro Obregón and Venustiano Carranza against Victoriano Huerta.
..... Click the link for more information. , it brought together the country's governmental, military, and agricultural leaders in a program of socioeconomic reform. In 1938 it was renamed the Mexican Revolutionary party, and in 1946 it acquired its present name. During the rest of the century all Mexican presidents and most officials belonged to the PRI, which was often accused of corruption and electoral fraud, the most clear-cut national example of the latter being the 1988 presidential election. Its victory margins decreased in the 1980s and 90s, and it lost some state elections to its opponents, but the party still remained Mexico's dominant political group.
In 1994 the PRI's presidential candidate, Luis Donaldo Colosio MurrietaColosio Murrieta, Luis Donaldo
, 1948–94, Mexican politician and government official, b. Magdalena del Kino, Mex. He studied at the Univ. of Pennsylvania and in Austria, returning to Mexico, where he began his political career.
..... Click the link for more information. , was assassinated; the party's new candidate, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de LeónZedillo Ponce de León, Ernesto
, 1951–, Mexican politician, president of Mexico (1994–2000). Educated as an economist in Mexico and the United States and a member of the Institutional Revolutionary party (PRI) since 1971, he served as Mexico's minister of
..... Click the link for more information. , won the presidency by a narrow margin. In the 1997 National Congress elections the party lost its majority in the lower house, although it remained the largest party. Zedillo worked to modernize and democratize both Mexico and the party.
In 1999 the PRI broke with the tradition of having presidents pick their own successors and held its first presidential primary. Nonetheless, in the 2000 national elections, the PRI candidate, Francisco Labastida Ochoa, lost to Vicente Fox QuesadaFox Quesada, Vicente
, 1942–, Mexican political leader, president of Mexico (2000–6). Raised on a ranch in rural central Mexico's Guanajuato state, he became a successful rancher and business executive.
..... Click the link for more information. , of the National Action party (PAN), ending more than 70 years of PRI control of the national government. The 2006 elections saw Roberto Madrazo, the PRI candidate for president, place third, and the party also came in third in terms of the vote for members of Mexico's congress.
The PRI nonetheless continued to be the nation's largest party in terms of local and state government officeholders, and when Mexico experienced an economic downturn in 2009 the party won a plurality in the lower house of Congress. The PRI regained the presidency in 2012, when its candidate, Enrique Peña NietoPeña Nieto, Enrique,
1966–, Mexican politician, president of Mexico (2012–18). He earned a law degree from the Panamerican Univ., Mexico City, and an M.B.A. from Monterrey Technological Institute.
..... Click the link for more information. , the former governor of Mexico state, won, and with its allies won a lower house majority in 2012 and 2015. In 2018, however, the party placed a distant third in the race for president and for seats in both congressional houses, suffering its worst loss ever.
See J. Castañeda, The Inheritance (1999).