Instructional Materials

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Instructional Materials


educational resources used to improve students’ knowledge, abilities, and skills, to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing.

There are three basic types of instructional materials: concrete objects, including objects from the world of nature; representations of concrete objects and phenomena; and descriptions of such objects and phenomena by means of the signs, words, and sentences of natural and artificial languages.

The first type of instructional materials includes such objects and phenomena as minerals, rocks, raw materials, semifinished and finished manufactured articles, and plant and animal specimens. Included among these materials are reagents and apparatus for producing chemical and other reactions and for demonstrating and studying such reactions during laboratory sessions. Also included in the first group are materials and equipment for students’ expeditions and other travel, as well as supplies, instruments, and equipment for production training and for courses in drafting and the representational arts. Among such supplies, instruments, and equipment are wood, metal, plastic, and glass objects, measuring and monitoring instruments and equipment, equipment for the assembling and finishing of various products, and machines and machine tools.

The second type of educational materials, that of representations of actual objects and phenomena, includes three-dimensional materials (castings, globes, and experimental models), two-dimensional materials (charts, pictures, photographs, maps, diagrams, and drawings), and audiovisual materials (motion pictures, film clips, filmstrips, slide sequences, diapositives, transparencies, records and tape recordings, and radio and television broadcasts). Audiovisual materials, including the resources of films, radio, and television, help acquaint students with the achievements of modern science, technology, industry, and culture and with phenomena that are inaccessible to direct observation. Audiovisual materials also acquaint students with early periods of history and with distant places in the world and in space. Such materials elucidate natural and social phenomena and enable students to study the inner world of matter and the internal motion of waves, elementary particles, atoms, molecules, and living cells.

The third type of instructional materials, that of written descriptions, includes scientific, scholarly, reference, and methodological teaching aids, as well as textbooks, books of problems and exercises, books for recording scientific observations, laboratory manuals, manuals for production training, and programmed textbooks.

Another type of instructional materials is technological instructional media. Among these are equipment for the transmission and assimilation of information recorded on film or on phonograph recordings: film projectors, tape recorders, phonographs, and television sets. Monitoring devices include punched cards and various types of automatic apparatus. Teaching machines include language-laboratory machines, closed-circuit television systems, and computers.

Instructional materials are made to comply with functional, biotechnological, aesthetic, economic, safety, and hygienic requirements.

The most effective use of educational equipment is achieved by means of centralized study facilities.

The Scientific Research Institute for School Materials and Technological Instructional Media of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR was founded in 1965 in Moscow to deal with the theory and development of instructional materials and to help provide the most efficient and advanced instructional materials for secondary schools.


Perechni tipovykh uchebno-nagliadnykh posobii i uchebnogo oborudovaniia dlia obshcheobrazovatel’nykh shkol. Moscow, 1977.
Solov’eva, E. E. Ekrannye posobiia na urokakh biologii. Moscow, 1971.
Oborudovanie nachal’nykh klassov. Edited by N. P. Konobeevskii. Moscow, 1971.
Tekhnicheskie sredstva obucheniia v srednei shkole. Edited by L. P. Pressman, Moscow, 1972.
Uchebnoe oborudovanie po fizike v srednei shkole. Edited by A. A. Pokrovskii. Moscow, 1973.
Shakhmaev, N. M. Didakticheskie problemy primeneniia tekhnicheskikh sredstv obucheniia v srednei shkole. Moscow, 1973.
Grabetskii, A. A., and T. S. Nazarova. Kabinet khimii. Moscow, 1974.
Zel’manova, L. M. Kabinet russkogo iazyka v srednei shkole, Moscow, 1974.
Pressman, L. P. Kabinet literatury vshkole. Moscow, 1975.
Oborudovanie kabineta matematiki. Moscow, 1975.
Samoilov, I. I. Uchebno-nagliadnye posobiia po geografii. Moscow, 1975.
Ispol’zovanie sredstv zvukozapisi v uchebnom protsesse. Moscow, 1975.
Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii sotsialisticheskikh stran po problemam shkol’nogo oborudovaniia. Moscow, 1975.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
During its audit, COA also discovered that 3.4 million copies of instructional materials worth P113.7 million procured from 2014 to 2017 were left rotting inside DepEd warehouses.
"The DepEd management assured that they will revisit the existing DepEd guidelines on the procurement of instructional materials and will evaluate the controls on buffer stocks," Education Undersecretary Anne Sevilla said in a message to the media.
In the report, the COA also said it found that the DepEd had 'an alarming number' of undistributed instructional materials worth P113.708 million.
The Commission on Audit (COA) has uncovered some P113.70 million worth of unutilized books and other instructional materials the warehouses of the Department of Education.
In the same stretch, Adeniran also ordered the immediate distribution of instructional materials to schools across the 33 Local Government areas of the state.
The workshop is part the school's community service to teach Mandaya educators create instructional materials to promote mother tongue-based multi-lingual education for kinder to grade 3 learners.
He added that the implementation of the curriculum is faced with untold hiccups, among them lack of teachers who have adequate knowledge, skills on CBC and teaching approaches.CHALLENGESOthers are lack of adequate approved textbooks for teachers and learners and lack of teachers instructional materials on CBC.
Publishing company Rowman & Littlefield has acquired certain Hal Leonard Performing Arts Publishing Group trade imprints and select trade titles from Hal Leonard LLC, which will continue its separate business of publishing sheet music and music instructional materials, book trade news company Publishers Weekly revealed on Monday.
Due to the lack of officially published bomb-making instructions in Islamic State propaganda, these channels usually compile instructions from various sources to add on to information available in previously released jihadi instructional materials. Administrators augment manuals from Inspire with multimedia content depicting user attempts to create explosive devices, as well as instructions from other sources.
An evaluation of the existing self-instructional print material at Intermediate level can lead to further improvement in instructional materials and ultimately the quality of education can be ensured with the production of high quality self-instructional print material.
Hussain Ebrahim Al Hammadi, Minister of Education, on Thursday announced the agreement with the learning science company for all K-12 maths and science instructional materials in e-book and print formats.

Full browser ?