a system for the organization of education that is based on the interdependence between teaching and learning. The instructional procedure followed in a given educational institution seeks to achieve the aims of instruction and upbringing and is governed by curricula, programs of study, and other educational programs followed in that educational institution. The instructional procedure includes all types of required work: classwork, lectures, seminars, laboratory work, practice teaching, and production training; it also includes extracurricular activities.
Instructional procedures in secondary general-educational schools, vocational-technical schools, specialized secondary schools, and higher educational institutions differ according to the type of school and according to whether instruction is conducted during the day, in the evening, during both the day and evening, or by correspondence. Instructional procedures also differ according to whether the system of instruction is the classroom system, the course system, the subject-course system, or the subject system. The system of instruction depends in turn on the type of educational institution and on whether instruction is conducted during the day, in the evening, or by correspondence. For example, general-educational schools, vocational-technical schools, and the daytime and evening divisions of specialized secondary educational institutions use the classroom system of instruction. Higher educational institutions use the course system, and the correspondence divisions of these institutions use the subject-course system. Institutes or departments for the advanced training of specialists use both the course and subject systems of instruction.