intelligence quotient

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intelligence quotient

a measure of the intelligence of an individual derived from results obtained from specially designed tests. The quotient is traditionally derived by dividing an individual's mental age by his chronological age and multiplying the result by 100

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a unit used in the field of INTELLIGENCE measurement and testing as an index of an individual's intelligence relative to a comparable population with respect to age. A ratio IQ is the IQ expressed as a ratio of mental age (as measured by a test) to chronological age, and multiplied by 100 to avoid decimals:

The average child at any one chronological age will therefore score 100 on the appropriate set of IQ test items. This was the original IQ measure first used in 1916 in the Stanford-Binet Test.

Modern tests make use of standard scores, which express the individual's distance from the mean in terms of the standard deviation, and assume a normal distribution. In a variant of this, the deviation IQ, the mean is 100 and a standard deviation of 15 or 16 is usual.

It is important to note the difference between these measures, since the deviation IQ is not a ratio of mental age to chronological age, and the measured IQs derived from it will depend on the standard deviation used in the test. see also INTELLIGENCE TEST.

intelligence quotient

[in′tel·ə·jəns ‚kwōsh·ənt]
(psychology)
The numerical designation for intelligence expressed as a ratio of an individual's performance on a standardized test to the average performance according to age. Abbreviated IQ.
References in periodicals archive ?
Advances in DNA sequencing technology raised the possibility that researchers could find individual genes underlying differences in intelligence test scores.
Visually impaired children and haptic intelligence test scores: Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children (ITVIC).
Since intelligence tests are meant to reflect the strength of a purely acontextual mental faculty, questions that favor a person with a specific interest become problematic.
The judge granted the motion to prohibit the administration of individual intelligence tests to all such children (Prasse & Reschly, 1986).
General intelligence "has been shown in hundreds of studies across the past century to relate strongly to educational success, occupational success, and even health," pointing out that people who score higher on intelligence tests tend to live longer, Ritchie concluded.
Led by Idan Shalev, from Duke University in North Carolina, the team studied the link between retinal vessel width and intelligence test scores in over 1,000 New Zealanders born between 1972-73 and followed up for 38 years with repeated assessments.
The utility of intelligence tests lies in their relationships with other important indicators of human functioning.
Those who scored highest on intelligence tests also had least variation in the regular rhythm they tapped out in the experiment.
It is hard to come away from this debate with any very firm conclusions but it seems clear that in fact there is some differentiation in human intelligence as it appears on intelligence tests.
Professor Jenny Morton says their "stupid" reputation may be unwarranted after she put a flock through a series of intelligence tests.
SIR - Mr Nisbet's disparaging reference to the intelligence tests that were introduced in the later 30s requires a robust correction (Letters, February 5).

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