hybrid

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Related to Intergeneric hybrid: Interspecific hybrid

hybrid

(hī`brĭd), term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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). The mulemule,
hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see ass) and a female horse, bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules.
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, the hybrid steer, and hybrid corn are examples of hybrids produced by breeders, but some animal species may cross-breed in the wild, as the gray wolf and coyote sometimes do. Hybridization between cultivars or varieties is often used in agriculture to obtain greater vigor or growth (heterosis). Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains (see breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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). The first generation shows greatly increased vigor and a better yield primarily because many genes for recessive, often deleterious, traits from one parent are masked by corresponding dominant genes in the other parent.

Hybrid

 

sexual offspring produced by the crossing of two genotypically different organisms. The organisms crossed are called parental forms and are designated by the letter P. The maternal form or female individual is designated by the symbol ♀ , the paternal form or male individual by the symbol ♂, crossing by the symbol ×, hybrid offspring of the first generation by F with the subscript 1 (F1), second generation by F2, and so forth. For example, the F4 hybrid of ♀(beardless wheat) Bezostaia 1 × ♂ Belotserkovskaia 198 is the fourth generation of the hybrid in which the maternal form was Bezostaia 1 and the paternal form Belotserkovskaia 198. Hybrids may be spontaneous or artificial, intraspecific or remote. The following hybrids are distinguished in breeding corn: the intervarietal, when two varieties are crossed; the variety-line hybrid, when a variety is crossed with an inbred line (for example, to produce the hybrid Bukovinskii 3: ♀ Gloriia lanetskogo × ♂ VIR 44); the single cross hybrid, from the crossing of two strains (for example, the hybrid Slava is produced by crossing the inbred lines ♀ VIR 44 ×♂ VIR 38); and the double cross hybrid from crossing two simple hybrids (for example, the hybrid VIR 42 is produced by crossing ♀ Slava × ♂ Svetoch).

D. M. SHCHERBINA

hybrid

[′hī·brəd]
(genetics)
The offspring of parents of different species or varieties.
(petrology)
Pertaining to a rock formed by the assimilation of two magmas.
(science and technology)
Having two or more different characteristics or types of structure.

hybrid

Said of a plant produced by crossing two distant varieties or species.

hybrid

1. an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile
2. a vehicle that is powered by an internal-combustion engine and another source of power such as a battery
3. (of a vehicle) powered by more than one source
4. Physics (of an electromagnetic wave) having components of both electric and magnetic field vectors in the direction of propagation
5. Electronics
a. (of a circuit) consisting of transistors and valves
b. (of an integrated circuit) consisting of one or more fully integrated circuits and other components, attached to a ceramic substrate

Hybrid

A concurrent object-oriented language.

["Active Objects in Hybrid", O.M. Nierstrasz, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):243-253 (OOPSLA '87) (Dec 1987)].

hybrid

(1) Products that combine two or more different technologies. For data and software hybrids, see hybrid file, hybrid app and hybrid mobile app. For hardware hybrids, see hybrid laptop, hybrid computer, hybrid cloud, eSATA USB Hybrid Port, hybrid smartwatch, hybrid drive, hybrid circuit and hybrid microcircuit.

(2) Also known as a "termination" or "term set," a hybrid is a device that adapts a two-wire telephone line from a home or business into a four-wire trunk at the telco central office. Hybrids also exist within the telephone handset, converting the two-wire line into four wires: two for the speaker; two for the microphone. See echo cancellation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Several intergeneric hybrids derived from crosses between S.
All plant materials used in this study were obtained from the University of Alberta germplasm collection, except the intergeneric hybrids. Intergeneric hybrids designated with the prefix BNH were obtained from the germplasm collection of Dr.
However, the activation of pairing control genes in intergeneric hybrids may complicate meiotic analyses and confound attempts to determine species relationships as pointed out by Thomas et al.
Intergeneric hybrids of grasses used in this study were kindly provided by Dr.
On the basis of the experience with similar intergeneric hybrids of grasses (Lesniewska et al., 2001; Zwierzykowski et al., 2001), some of the regenerated diploids are expected to be fertile.
A significant proportion of RAPD markers were species specific and had the ability to detect introgression of alien chromatin-DNA fragments in intergeneric hybrids and their advanced generations (Bommineni et al., 1997; Benabdelmouna et al., 1999).
As early as 1930, Aase stated: "Haploidy may be changed to diploidy in the meiotic division through non-reduction of univalents." Meiotic restitution is known to induce chromosome doubling and hence fertility in several interspecific and intergeneric hybrids of grasses (Maan and Sasakuma, 1977; Jauhar, 1993; Xu and Joppa, 1995).
Production and meiotic analyses of intergeneric hybrids between durum wheat and Thinopyrum species, p.
Genome analysis of intergeneric hybrids of apomictic and sexual Australian Elymus species with wheat, barley and rye: implications for the transfer of apomixis to cereals.