Interior, United States Department of the

Interior, United States Department of the,

federal executive department established in 1849, delegated custodian of U.S. natural resources, and whose head, the Secretary of the Interior, has cabinet rank. Bureaus dealing with the department's responsibility for mineral resources include: the Geological SurveyGeological Survey, United States,
bureau organized in 1879 under the Dept. of the Interior to unify and centralize the work already undertaken by separate surveys under Clarence King, F. V. Hayden, George W. Wheeler, and J. W. Powell.
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, the Bureau of Mines, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, and the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The Bureau of Mines was established in 1910 to oversee mineral use and to promote safety in the mining industry. The department's responsibility for water and power resources is handled primarily by the Bureau of ReclamationReclamation, United States Bureau of,
agency set up in the Dept. of the Interior under the Reclamation Act of 1902. It is charged with promoting regional economies by developing water and related land resources in the West.
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 and various specific power administrations that operate projects generating electrical power. The divisions of the department concerned with public landpublic land,
in U.S. history, land owned by the federal government but not reserved for any special purpose, e.g., for a park or a military reservation. Public land is also called land in the public domain.
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 management include the bureaus of Indian AffairsIndian Affairs, Bureau of,
created (1824) in the U.S. War Dept. and transferred (1849) to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior. The War Dept. managed Native American affairs after 1789, but a separate bureau was not set up for many years.
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 and Land Management. The Bureau of Land Management was formed in 1946 by merging the General Land OfficeGeneral Land Office,
established (1812) in the U.S. Treasury Dept. and transferred (1849) to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Empowered to survey, manage, and dispose of the public domain, the office administered the preemption acts, homestead laws, and all legislation affecting
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 with the Grazing Service. It manages and disposes of public land under programs designed to produce multiple use and sustained yield of resources while maintaining a quality environment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, reorganized in 1970, is responsible for planning for the use and enjoyment of sport fishing and wildlife resources. It runs fish hatcheries and wildlife refugeswildlife refuge,
haven or sanctuary for animals; an area of land or of land and water set aside and maintained, usually by government or private organization, for the preservation and protection of one or more species of wildlife. Types of Refuges

The U.S.
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, manages animal populations, and regulates the natural environment. The National Park Service, established in 1916, acts as trustee for the areas designated as national parks and monumentsnational parks and monuments.
The National Park Service, a bureau of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, was established in 1916 to oversee the administration of 40 national parks and monuments under the charge of the department.
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. It is charged with maintaining and preserving them for present and future enjoyment.
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