Levels of two of the biomarkers -- interleukin 6 and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist -- were higher among players with concussion six hours after the injury compared to players in the control group, the findings showed.
The researchers also found that players with higher levels of interleukin 6 six hours after a concussion were more likely to take longer to recover from their symptoms.
The biomarkers interleukin 6
and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist were both elevated at six hours after concussion.
and interleukin 8 are the much studied cytokines as they are essential mediators of cancer development and powerful activators of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling cascade.16 IL-8 is found to stimulate angiogenesis, influence tissue remodeling, leukocyte chemotaxis, dysregulated cell cycle, suppressed immune system and regulating of cell proliferation and differentiation.17 Various stimuli for example chemical and environmental stresses including chemotherapy and hypoxia, proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-[alpha] and IL-1, hormones and bacterial and viral products are known to regulate the manifestations of IL-8.18
The team also measured patients' body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity; fasting blood sugar levels; and blood levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, a substance produced by the liver in response to inflammation, and interleukin 6
, an immune protein that is active during inflammation.
A proinflammatory cytokine called Interleukin 6
decreased throughout the exercise (P=.03) while an anti-inflammatory cytokine called interleukin 10 did not significantly change.
(IL-6) and 18 (IL-18) are proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of HI induced brain damage.
(IL-6)  is a key proinflammatory cytokine produced by many different cells, including leukocytes, adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and myocytes.
Previous studies have shown that levels of the cytokines interleukin 6
, interleukin 8, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-GSF) are elevated in the amniotic fluid and cervical secretions of women with intrauterine infection, compared with those without infection, said Dr.
The team evaluated the effects of the organisms by measuring the cells' production of interleukin 1[beta], interleukin 6
, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha], and nitric oxide (all of which are involved in inflammation response) and by measuring cell viability.
Keywords: Interleukin 6
, Single nucleotide polymorphism, Diabetes mellitus.
(IL-6) is a cytokine that is produced by a wide variety of cells and has pleiotropic biological functions, such as the induction of acute phase proteins in hepatocytes, the terminal differentiation and growth promotion of B cells, the differentiation and activation of T cells and macrophages, and the regulation of expression of other cytokines (1).