Having achieved surface wetting, adhesion can be further enhanced beyond weak intermolecular attraction
by forming covalent bonds between the coating and the substrate.
As the profile becomes even thinner and transitions into the equilibrium thin-film region, or the evaporative precursor film region, it approaches a limit where the intermolecular attraction
of the liquid molecules to the solid surface can negate the tendency of these molecules to evaporate, even at elevated temperatures.
Thus, the net potential energy (Ep) that belonging to intermolecular forces, having responsibility for the transition to one-dimensional shape may be presented as sum of three main components according to following equation: equationwhere (Ep(Elec)) is the potential energy associated with intermolecular attraction
forces between opposite charged polar groups, (Ep(Disp)) is the potential energy belonging to the dispersion force between the hydrophobic chains of surfactants, and (Ep(Ice)) is the heat released from the extra hydrogen bonds between water molecules due to hydrophobic effect (icebergs).
Polyurethane has a phase-separated structure due to the difference in intermolecular attraction
of its hard and soft segments.
Other compatible modifying polyolefins can control molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, can affect the intermolecular attraction
, can lead to entanglements, can be involved in intermolecular reactions, such as crosslinks.
The intermolecular attraction
associated with the polar nitrile group in acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber resists rotational motion.
Therefore, the lower damping value means the more rigid molecular chain and the lower intermolecular attraction
According to this approach, solid designates a state in which intermolecular attractions
keep molecules in fixed spatial relationships, whereas fluid describes one in which intermolecular attractions
place molecules in loose proximity.
Each demonstration is followed by a chapter containing a simple explanation of such chemical principles as intermolecular attractions
and bonds, the behavior of gases, and the differences between acids and bases.
Some weak intermolecular attractions
, called hydrogen bonds, which ordinarily would strengthen links between the glucose components of alpha-cyclodextrine become disrupted.
between a surface and the tips of those plentiful hairs, or setules, on geckos, spiders, and other creatures add up to a strong adhesive force (SN: 6/7/03, p.
In a liquid film thinner than about 100 nm, intermolecular attractions
called van der Waals forces tend to squeeze the film so much that it disappears with a pop, says Dorbolo.