International Criminal Court


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to International Criminal Court: International Court of Justice

International Criminal Court

(ICC), first permanent world court created specifically to try individuals for genocide, war crimes, crimes of aggression, and crimes against humanity, est. 2002; located at the Hague, Netherlands. More than 110 nations have ratified the treaty that founded the court; those that have not include China, Russia, and the United States. The first judges were formally sworn in in 2003.

The ICC inaugurated its first investigations in 2004 when it began looking into crimes in Congo (Kinshasa) and Uganda. Its first arrest warrants were issued (2005) for five leaders of the Ugandan rebel Lord's Resistance Army, which was accused of causing nearly 20 years of conflict. In 2005 the United Nations voted to refer war crimes cases in Sudan's DarfurDarfur
, region and former sultanate, W Sudan. The region is mountainous, dominated by the central massif of Jebel Marra, which rises to 10,130 ft (3,088 m). Much of the terrain is dry plateau, and there are sand dunes in the extreme north.
..... Click the link for more information.
 region to the ICC, and the subsequent issuing (2009) of a warrant for the arrest of Sudan's President Omar Ahmed al-BashirBashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed al-
, 1944–, Sudanese military and political leader, president of Sudan (1994–2019). He graduated from the Sudanese military academy (1966) and a Cairo military college and became a career army officer, ultimately rising to the rank of
..... Click the link for more information.
 in connection with war crimes and other offenses in Darfur has been the ICC's most notable action. Enforcement of the the warrant, however, is dependent on the cooperation of national governments.

Among its other significant cases has been that of former Congolese rebel leader and interim vice president Jean-Pierre BembaBemba Gombo, Jean-Pierre,
1962–, Congolese politician. Born to wealthy parents, he was educated in Brussels and built a business empire in what was then Zaïre. In the early 1990s he was personal assistant to President Mobutu Sese Seko.
..... Click the link for more information.
, who was arrested (2008) in Belgium and was convicted in 2016 of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Central African Republic by a militia he headed; the verdict was later (2018) overturned. ICC judges also authorized (2010) the investigation of those responsible for murder, rape, and forced displacement in the ethnic violence that followed the 2007 elections in Kenya, and in Dec., 2010, six prominent Kenyans, including Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta, were accused of crimes against humanity. A lack of cooperation from Kenya, where Kenyatta was elected president in 2013, led to the case's collapse. The ICC issued its first verdict in Mar., 2012, when Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese warlord, was convicted of having used child soldiers in an ethnic conflict in E Congo; his trial had begun in 2009. The first case involving the destruction of cultural artifacts and heritage involved Ahmad al-Faqi al-Madhi, who was tried and convicted (2016) of destroying historic Islamic shrines and other sites in Mali during fighting in 2012.

In 2016 the African Union accused the court of targeting African leaders (though most investigations were the result of country government or UN requests), and a number of African nations have announced that they would withdraw from the ICC. Burundi, which was the subject of a preliminary investigation (beginning in 2016) into the political violence there, withdrew in 2017. The Philippines withdrew in 2019; Rodrigo DuterteDuterte, Rodrigo Roa
, 1945–, Philippine lawyer and political leader. He joined the prosecutor's office in Davao, Mindanao, in 1977, served as mayor of the city (1988–98), was elected to the Philippine House of Representatives (1998–2001), and served again as
..... Click the link for more information.
, its president, who had supported attacks on alleged criminals and was accused of crimes against humanity, was the subject of a preliminary investigation.

In 1998, when the UN General Assembly approved a treaty authorizing a permanent international court for war crimes, China, Russia, the United States, and four other nations opposed the treaty, and 21 nations abstained. The United States subsequently signed the agreement, but the G. W. Bush administration opposed its implementation, fearing that American officials or military personnel might be arrested abroad on baseless charges. In May, 2002, with the treaty a few weeks away from taking effect, the United States repudiated the document and indicated that it would not cooperate with the court. The U.S. government subsequently insisted (2002, 2003) that American forces used as UN peacekeepers be exempted from prosecution by the court, and in 2003 it suspended military aid to nations that did not similarly exempt U.S. citizens serving within their borders. In 2004, following the Iraq prisoner abuse scandal, the United States was unable to secure a further exemption from the UN.

References in periodicals archive ?
Given the baseless, unprecedented and outrageous attacks on my person as well as against my administration, engineered by officials of the United Nations as well as an attempt by the International Criminal Court special prosecutor to place my person within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.
It was apparent to this court that the above requests made to the court clearly indicates that the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court was still gathering evidence to prosecute the Respondents yet charges have already been laid against them before the International Criminal Court,' said Judge Kimaru.
Bensouda said that the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court consisted of three Divisions, including an Investigations Division, a Prosecutions Division, and a Jurisdiction, Complementarity and Cooperation Division.
Trial Chamber IV of the International Criminal Court (ICC) scheduled the opening of the trial in the case The Prosecutor v.
Gatilov said that Russia opposes Syria going before the International Criminal Court "since we consider that this is counterproductive in the current situation.
Since 2002 in The Hague, the International Criminal Court has been called on to judge individuals accused of genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression and war crimes.
Leila Hanafi, ICC legal coordinator, MENA Region, said the delegation briefed Shaikh Nahyan about the theme of the symposium, which was held at UAEU to highlight the ICC functions and its role in the UAE, which had joined the International Criminal Court Statute (the Rome Statute) in 2000.
An acquittal of a former Congolese militia leader has prompted calls for reforming the International Criminal Court.
The Hague-based International Criminal Court (ICC) is marking its 10th anniversary in Nuremberg, Germany, with a two-day international conference with the theme: 'Through the Lens of Nuremberg: The International Criminal Court at its Tenth Anniversary'.
Summary: Libya is determined to try former spy chief Abdullah Senussi who was arrested in Mauritania, the justice minister said Sunday, as France and the International Criminal Court also seek his extradition.
TRIPOLI: Libya is determined to try former spy chief Abdullah Senussi who was arrested in Mauritania, the justice minister said Sunday, as France and the International Criminal Court also seek his extradition.
The International Criminal Court has decreed that Saif al-Islam Gaddafi will be tried in Libya rather than at the Hague-based court, Libyan Justice Minister Ali Khalifa Ashur said Monday.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?