Nuremberg Trials

(redirected from International Military Tribunal)
Also found in: Legal, Acronyms.

Nuremberg Trials

 

the trials of a group of the principal Nazi war criminals, held in Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Germany, from Nov. 20, 1945, to Oct. 1, 1946, before the International Military Tribunal.

The highest government and military figures of fascist Germany were put on trial, including H. Göring, R. Hess, J. von Ribbentrop, W. Keitel, E. Kaltenbrunner, A. Rosenberg, H. Frank, W. Frick, J. Streicher, W. Funk, K. Doenitz, E. Raeder, B. von Schirach, F. Sauckel, A. Jodl, A. Seyss-Inquart, A. Speer, K. von Neurath, H. Fritzsche, H. Schacht, and F. von Papen. Before the trials began, R. Ley hung himself. The trial of G. Krupp, who was diagnosed as incurably ill, was suspended. M. Bormann, who had escaped and had not been apprehended, was tried in absentia.

All of the accused were charged with committing the gravest war crimes and with planning and carrying out a plot against peace and humanity—the murder and brutal treatment of prisoners of war and civilians, the plundering of private and public property, and the establishment of a system of slave labor. In addition, the tribunal raised the question of branding as criminal various organizations of fascist Germany, such as the leadership of the National Socialist Party, the Storm Troopers (SA), security detachments of the National Socialist Party (the SS), the security services (SD), the secret police (Gestapo), the Nazi government (the cabinet), and the General Staff.

During the trials, 403 open judicial sessions were held, 116 witnesses were questioned, and numerous written depositions and documentary materials were examined, chiefly the official documents of the German ministries and departments, the General Staff, military industrial enterprises, and banks.

To coordinate the investigation and substantiate the charges, a committee of the chief prosecutors was formed: R. A. Rudenko (the USSR), Robert Jackson (the USA), H. Shawcross (Great Britain), and F. de Menthon and later, C. de Ribes (France).

Sentences were pronounced from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 1946. With the exception of Schacht, Fritzsche, and Papen, all of the accused were found guilty. Goring, Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick, Streicher, Sauckel, Jodl, Seyss-Inquart, and Bormann (in absentia) were sentenced to death by hanging; Hess, Funk, and Raeder, to life imprisonment; Schirach and Speer, to 20 years in prison; Neurath, to 15; and Doenitz, to ten. The tribunal declared the SS, the Gestapo, the SD, and the leadership of the Nazi Party to be criminal organizations. The member of the tribunal from the USSR presented a separate opinion expressing his disagreement with the acquittal of Schacht, Fritzsche, and Papen and with the refusal to declare the Nazi cabinet and General Staff to be criminal organizations. The appeals of the condemned for pardons were rejected by the Control Council, and the death sentences were carried out in the early hours of Oct. 16, 1946. Goring committed suicide shortly before his scheduled execution.

The Nuremberg Trials, the first international trials in history, recognized aggression as a grave crime; punished as criminals those government figures guilty of planning, unleashing, and waging aggressive wars; and justly and deservedly punished the organizers and executors of the criminal plans for the extermination of millions of innocent people and for the subjugation of entire nations. The principles of international law contained in the Charter of the Tribunal and expressed in the sentence were affirmed by a resolution passed by the UN General Assembly on Dec. 11, 1946.

REFERENCES

Niurnbergskii protsess nad glavnymi voennymi prestupnikami, vols. 1–7. (Collection of materials.) Moscow, 1957–61.
Poltorak, A. I. Niumbergskii protsess. Moscow, 1966.

M. IU. RAGINSKII

Nuremberg Trials

surviving Nazi leaders put on trial (1946). [Eur. Hist.: Van Doren, 512]
See: Justice
References in periodicals archive ?
International Military Tribunal, 1 October 1946, in The Trial of the German Major Criminals, Proceeding of the International Military Tribunal sitting at Nuremberg, pt.
19 International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal 458 (1948) (emphasis added) (with my continuing thanks to Matthew Gillet and Manuel Ventura for bringing this quotation to my attention).
A similar structure, called the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, was established in 1946 to try Japan's leadership for WWII war crimes.
42) The resulting Charter for the International Military Tribunal attempted to do precisely that, declaring that the Tribunal had jurisdiction over the following offenses, for which there would be personal responsibility:
International Military Tribunal Nuremberg, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal Nuremberg 14 November 1945-1 October 1946, vol.
In the Nuremberg trial, the international military tribunal established a principle that war crimes are offences against customary international law and as such are subject to universal jurisdiction.
After World War II, in 1945, the Allies enacted the Charter of the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg to govern the trials of senior Nazi officials accused of war crimes.
9) Unlike the aftermath of WWI, in which "crimes against the laws of humanity" were not prosecuted, (10) the victorious allies of WWII established the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT), and the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), (11) which respectively contained "crimes against humanity" in Articles 6(c) and 5(c) of their Charter and Statute.
For 60 years the International Military Tribunal (IMT) for the Far East (Tokyo War Crimes Trial), held during 1946-48, has been relatively unstudied, especially in comparison with its European counterpart, the Nuremberg trials.
The Court notes that the London Charter, which established the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, granted the Tribunal jurisdiction over natural persons only.
In the aftermath of the defeat of Nazi Germany, the US became involved in three kinds of post-war trials: the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg that tried the most notorious top Nazi leaders; a number of military tribunals, especially at Dachau, that tried relatively low-ranking suspects, such as concentration camp personnel and those accused of committing war crimes against American troops; and twelve American Military Tribunals also at Nuremberg (actually civil courts under the American military occupation) that tried middle-ranking suspects from selected German institutions such as industry, the medical profession, the military, the judiciary, state ministries, and branches of the SS.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?