International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), worldwide organization of medical groups dedicated to eliminating nuclear weapons and preventing nuclear war, est. 1980. Based in Cambridge, Mass., it was organized by two cardiologists, American Bernard Lown and Russian Yevgeny Chazov. The IPPNW has educated health professionals, political figures, and the general public about the medical and environmental consequences of producing and testing nuclear weaponry and the catastrophic consequences of nuclear warfare, and for these efforts the IPPNW was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985. Concentrating since on international campaigns to eliminate nuclear weapons and to prevent violence from small arms and on a program to educate and promote leadership in medical students, the IPPNW now includes national medical organizations from 60 countries, representing tens of thousands of medical personnel.