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These international temperature scales are defined in terms of fixed points, vapor pressures of some liquefied gases, thermometers that can be measured very precisely and fairly easily, and equations that relate measurements of these thermometers to temperatures of the scale.
Table 1 lists the fixed points and their assigned temperatures of all the International Temperature Scales that have been adopted.
The International Temperature Scales that followed the NHS were based on fixed points with assigned temperature values based on measurements of the thermodynamic temperature, standard thermometers and interpolation equations.
The purpose of the ITS-27 and of the subsequent International Temperature Scales has been well expressed in the introduction to the ITS-48 :