Internationalisms


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Internationalisms

 

words that coincide in their external form (taking into account regular correspondences of sounds with graphic units), fully or partially correspond in meaning, express concepts of international significance, and coexist in various languages, including those that are unrelated or distantly related. They are one of the forms of foreign words.

The most important criterion for an internationalism is that the word have a common meaning in the various languages—for example, Russian and Bulgarian situatsiia; Czech situace; Polish situacja; English, French, and German situation; Italian situazione; and Spanish situación. Another example is Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian atom; Czech, Polish, English, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Albanian atom; German Atom; French atome; Spanish and Italian atomo; Finnish atomi; and Latvian atoms. In terminology, there may be a conscious convergence in the meanings of internationalisms in order to standardize terms.

There are internationalisms in different areas. The American-European area is the most studied in relation to internationalisms. An example of the Muslim is the word for “independence”: Arabic istiklal, Turkish istiklâl, Afghan istiklāl, and Persian esteglal. An East Asian internationalism is “army”: Chinese chüntui, Korean kunde, and Japanese guntai.

Internationalisms come either from a modern language or from neologisms coined from Greek or Latin roots, which provide a common store for the formation of such words.

REFERENCES

Zhirmunskii, V. [M.]Natsional’nyi iazyk i sotsial’nye dialekty. Leningrad, 1936. Chapter 6.
Akulenko, V. V. “Sushchestvuet li International’naia leksika.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1961, no. 3.
Bel’chikov, Iu. A. International’naia terminologiia v russkom iazyke. Moscow, 1959.
Makovskii, M. M. “K probleme tak nazyvaemoi ‘International’noi’ lek-siki.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1960, no. 1.

V. V. RASKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
These multiple trajectories and connections were integral to the solidarities and forms of cosmopolitan internationalism shaped through the International Brigades.
These produced forms of cosmopolitan internationalism which were shaped through articulations and linkages between activists with different trajectories.
While the poem is framed by an imaginary of anti-colonial internationalism, the resolution in the final stanza troubles this imaginary.
90) It was figures in the anarcho-syndicalist CNT and trotskyist movement that would play particularly significant roles in attempting to shape an anti-imperial internationalism in relation to Spain and Morocco.
105) Makalani's focus on the ways that such boundaries and limits of left political theorising were stretched and reconfigured allows something of the generative spatial politics of communist internationalism to emerge.
Some black internationalist intellectuals and activists used the spaces afforded by communist internationalism to provide space for political analyses which connected anti-fascism to anti-colonial politics and analysis.
Through doing so I have sought to foreground not just some of the imaginative connections and solidarities forged through such political practices, but also some of the ways these exerted pressure on the forms of left internationalism they constituted.
The research the paper draws on was funded by a British Academy Small Grant on 'Black Internationalism and the Spatial Politics of Anti-Fascism.
Makalani, In the Cause of Freedom: Radical Black Internationalism From Harlem to London, 1917-1939, Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2011, p73.
For an application of this argument to the activities of black communists in 1930s Cardiff see David Featherstone, Solidarity: Hidden Histories and Geographies of Internationalism, London, Zed Books, chapter 3.
See David Featherstone, 'Black internationalism, subaltern cosmopolitanism and the spatial politics of anti-fascism', Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103, 6, 2013, pp1406-20.

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