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Related to Interoception: exteroception
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the emergence, conduction, and reception by the central nervous system of impulses that appear as a result of the excitation of sensory endings distributed in the internal organs.

Communication of the internal organs, blood and lymph vessels, and skeletal muscles with the central nervous system is accomplished by means of interoception. The basis for the study of interoception was laid by the English physiologist C. Sherrington, who distinguished a special type of interoception—proprioception—and established the role of muscle interoception in motor reactions. The role of muscle interoception had been elucidated still earlier by the Russian physiologist I. M. Sechenov. The significance of interoception of the blood vessels was studied in detail by the German physiologist H. Hering, the Belgian pharmacologists J. and C. Heymans, and the Soviet physiologist V. V. Parin. Interoception of tissues was studied in detail by the Soviet physiologist V. N. Chernigovskii. A special role in the study of interoception belongs to the notion put forward by I. P. Pavlov of the existence, along with analyzers of the external environment, of analyzers of the body’s internal environment. This notion was developed and elaborated by K. M. Bykov (a student of I. P. Pavlov) and his school, who established the possibility of developing special interoceptive conditioned reflexes and demonstrated the influence of interoception on the condition and function of the cerebral cortex. This work gave physiologists and physicians an objective method of investigating the sensitivity of the internal organs. As a result of the study of interoception it has been possible to establish a number of facts that are important to medical theory and practice. A powerful stream of interoceptive impulses is directed into the central nervous system from all the blood vessels, the heart, and the lungs; this is extremely important for the regulation of vascular tonus. Interoception of the digestive tract, which ensures the coordination of function of its various sections, plays an essential role. The correlation of interoception with the stimuli entering the central nervous system from the exteroceptors ensures the integration of body reactions and the adaptation of the body’s internal environment to the influences of the constantly changing external environment.


Chernigovskii, V. N. Interotseptory. Moscow, 1960.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Neirofiziologicheskii analiz kortiko-vistseral’noi reflektornoi dugi. Leningrad, 1967.
Lebedeva, V. A. Mekhanizmy khemoretseptsii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Il’inskii, O. B. Mekhanoretseptory. Leningrad, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kumfor, "Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia: at the interface of interoception, emotion and social cognition?," Cortex, 2017.
"The knower is not simply a mirror floating with no foot-hold anywhere." (29) There is no unembodied standpoint; the "lived body" (30) can be analyzed in two complementary worlds: primo, the presented world ("Gegenwelt"), i.e., the environment as apprehended (constructed) by the central nervous system; secundo, the innerworld ("Innenwelt"), made of affectivity, interoception, proprioception and imaginative projections.
The physical structures that permit interoception include the vestibular system of the inner ear, which governs balance (Madaule 49; Siff 70), the baroreceptors or sensors that line the heart and veins and provide us with information about our internal body pressure and the Golgi tendons which allow us to know the relative positions of our limbs in space without having to look at them (Siff 70).
Interoception. I follow Leder in utilizing this term to refer to those internal sensations, originating in the viscera, that are available to conscious awareness.
The role of interoception, which is a complex and multimodal bodily system involving a sense of body parts in space (proprioception) and the act of attending, appraising, and responding to afferent body signals [113], has been considered as one of yoga's underlying mechanisms of action through the process of interoceptive exposure and reconditioning [97].
Additionally, children's knowledge and preferences on nutrition and physical activity will be assessed in short questions as well as their well-being and interoception. On some subsamples, which parents had to provide separate consent for, physical activity will be assessed objectively over a period of six days using accelerometry and heart rate (Actiheart, CamNtech, UK), body composition will be measured using sonography, and samples of saliva and a cheek swab will be analysed for potential health risk factors and epigenetic components.
Mahler presents readers with a comprehensive examination of the connection between interoception, sensory difficulties, self-regulation, and autism spectrum disorder and related conditions.