One is dated near 11,480 yr ago (Y-526), which is Two Creeks interstadial
time farther west, and the other is 9,600 yr ago which is the end of Valders time.
Since its discovery in 1939, the Karukula section had been correlated with the Riss-Wurm Interglacial (Orviku 1944, 1960), Brorup Interstadial
(Orviku & Pirrus 1965) or Middle Weichselian (Punning et al.
Although fragmentary, this fauna is important because only two previous records exist of interstadial
fossil vertebrates from Michigan: a Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) bone from Muskegon County (Kapp 1978; Holman 1976), and mandible fragments and teeth of a Jefferson mammoth (Mammuthus jeffersonii) from Midland County (Kapp 1970).
During the Pleistocene, periods of loess deposition, weathering, and soil formation during interstadials
alternated with periods of cryoplanation and deposition of solifiuction debris in valley sides and bottoms (Wood 1969; Leslie 1973).
chronological and ecological) for distinguishing between Sangamonian interglacial and early Wisconsinan interstadial
deposits may necessitate a younger age assignment of the Iron Bridge local fauna.
We're in an interstadial
period and will be until we reach a trigger event, when the ocean reaches a somewhat higher level.
The MIS 3 'megainterstadial' is characterized by alternating warm and cool phases and, based on the age interval of SU2, the sediments from the Krasnogorskij interstadial
in Central Europe) to the Leningradskij interstadial
in Central Europe) are present (Velichko et al.
The apparent predominance of later over earlier Aurignacian sites in north-western Europe may simply reflect occupation intensity, particularly given the traditional association of the 'classic' earlier Aurignacian with a cold climate, and the later Aurignacian with warmer conditions and a terrestrially observable interstadial
event (Djindjian et al.
On the other hand, the color descriptors for the Illinoian-age Rainsboro and Batavia tills, which are not gleyed, are very typical of colors seen in Late-Wisconsinan-age tills in southern and central Ohio, south of the lacustrine dominated fine-grained tills of the post-Erie Interstadial
The most promising is the radiocarbon method but it has also limited application due to lack of good interstadial
sections for dating.
This discovery represents an interstadial
interval, in other words, a time when the ice withdrew and then advanced again.
Pons and Vernet (1971) refer to Quercus ilex as the main element of a thermophilous vegetation during the Lateglacial Interstadial
and the onset of the Holocene, after the Pin us dominance.