Interstate Commerce Commission

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Interstate Commerce Commission

(ICC), former independent agency of the U.S. government, established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the ICC's jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies.

The ICC, the first regulatory commission in U.S. history, was established as a result of mounting public indignation in the 1880s against railroad malpractices and abuses (see Granger movementGranger movement,
American agrarian movement taking its name from the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley and six associates. Its local units were called granges and its members grangers.
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), but until President Theodore RooseveltRoosevelt, Theodore,
1858–1919, 26th President of the United States (1901–9), b. New York City. Early Life and Political Posts

Of a prosperous and distinguished family, Theodore Roosevelt was educated by private tutors and traveled widely.
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, the ICC's effectiveness was limited by the failure of Congress to give it enforcement power, by the Supreme Court's interpretation of its powers, and by the vague language of its enabling act. Beginning with the Hepburn Act (1906), the ICC's jurisdiction was gradually extended beyond railroads to all common carriers except airplanes by 1940. Its enforcement powers to set rates were also progressively extended, through statute and broadened Supreme Court interpretations of the commerce clause of the Constitution, as were its investigative powers for determining fair rates of return on which to base rates. In addition, the ICC was given the task of consolidating railroad systems and managing labor disputes in interstate transport. In the 1950s and 60s the ICC enforced U.S. Supreme Court rulings that required the desegregation of passenger terminal facilities.

The ICC's safety functions were transferred to the Dept. of Transportation when that department was created in 1966; the ICC retained its rate-making and regulatory functions. However, in consonance with the deregulatory movement, the ICC's powers over rates and routes in rails and trucking were curtailed in 1980 by the Staggers Rail Act and Motor Carriers Act. Most ICC control over interstate trucking was abandoned in 1994, and the agency was terminated at the end of 1995. Many of its remaining functions were transferred to the new National Surface Transportation Board.

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References in periodicals archive ?
As to why the Court first turned to "interstate commerce," we should first consider whether it was largely a result of litigation over language in legislation using "interstate commerce." While statutory litigation has greatly added to the mentions of "interstate commerce" in Court cases, as discussed above, we have removed most such references from our data, the bulk of which concerned the Interstate Commerce Act, (159) so legislation does not account for the Court's overwhelming use of the term in place of the actual constitutional language as shown above in Tables 1 and 2.
United States, the Supreme Court used the term "unjust discrimination," (45) which is interchangeable with unreasonable discrimination, and repeatedly labeled the discriminatory practice to be "unjust." (46) Even after Mitchell, the Interstate Commerce Commission ruled that segregation in the railway industry did not violate the Interstate Commerce Act. Therefore, African Americans who encountered discrimination in the railroad context could not fde complaints to bring actionable discrimination claims.
761 (1945), the Court found that an Arizona train-length law was not preempted by the Interstate Commerce Act or the negative Commerce Clause.
Under the Interstate Commerce Act, the rate of the carrier duly filed is the only lawful charge.
This law influenced passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
Any attempt by a state to regulate a mail-order pharmacy beyond its boundaries is, in Konnor's words, "unconstitutional and flies in the face of the interstate commerce act."
During his administration a Presidential Succession act was passed, an anarchist riot took place in HAYMARKET SQUARE in Chicago, and the Interstate Commerce Act was passed.
Shortly after the decision, Congress created the Interstate Commerce Commission via the 1887 Interstate Commerce Act. Ballonoff concludes that the lack of general patent power and the limitations of the "general welfare" and "necessary and proper" clauses preclude much of Congress's power to regulate commerce and, by extension, the almost countless regulatory agencies that sprung up through congressional delegation.
6 to the antecedent Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 as amended by the Hepburn Act of 1906, the Mann-Elkins Act of 1910, the Esch-Cummings Act of 1920, and the Willis-Graham Act of 1921.
Wilner writes that from the beginning, the Association's "object [was] to promote the proper administration of the Interstate Commerce Act and related acts, to uphold the honor of practice before the Interstate Commerce Commission, and to encourage cordial intercourse among the practitioners".
Stickney, a maverick rail president who strongly favored rate regulation, conceded nevertheless that the immediate effect of the Interstate Commerce Act was the lowering of some noncompetitive rates to competitive levels.

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