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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
(2013) Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women.
"High-intensity interval training makes time go by faster, and it is more fun," Chriest said.
The aim of this investigation was to explore the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on weight, body mass index and body fat percentagefor adults.
Additionally, the scale was modified to exclude 2 criteria that are technically challenging in interval training exercise interventions: blinding of subjects and blinding of therapists.
Within the RUSH Study, considering the status of our target group (untrained, healthy men 30-50 years; predominantly overweight), the load type (running), and the training objective (10 km running competition), we regarded the execution of a complex HIIT protocol including SIT and RST components as possibly too demanding, so we limited ourselves mainly to interval training forms in the range of >90 sec.
There will most likely be high-intensity interval training and circuits using big compound moves like push-ups, chin-ups, box jumps and weighted sled pushes.
However, you could make your body work a whole lot harder, but for shorter periods, by incorporating short bursts of extreme activity - aka High-intensity Interval Training - into your routine.
YOU'RE ALREADY: Lifting weights HOW ABOUT: Interval training Make your body work a whole lot harder, but for shorter periods, by incorporating short bursts of extreme activity - aka High-intensity Interval Training - into your routine.
Synopsis: High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is the best and quickest way to get fit, lose weight, and tone your body!
There's been quite an increase in interest in performance-based high-intensity training programs and so the authors of Maximum Interval Training are in the perfect position to build on this sports interest by providing nearly a hundred and fifty exercises designed to build better muscles using short, intense exercise routines.